How long the menopause lasts: three stages


Menopause is a natural physiological process that is inevitable for every woman. Its occurrence means that the body ceases to perform the fertile function. Climax can begin at different ages. It is worth telling in more detail about when the representatives of the weaker sex should prepare for it.

When menopause occurs in women

With age, the body ends the process of production of the female sex hormone - estrogen. Because of this, the functioning of the woman’s ovaries gradually stops. Egg maturation occurs less and less and disappears. Stop going monthly. Lack of menstruation is one of the main symptoms of menopause. Along with it, signs of aging appear: wrinkles, sagging skin. All these are direct and indirect signs that the female body is no longer ready for conception, bearing the child, or giving birth.

At what age does menopause begin?

Every woman's ovarian failure occurs in different years. The average age when menopause begins is 45-50 years old. However, this is not the case for all the fair sex. There is an early menopause, which begins around 40-44 years (in rare cases after 35). There are also such situations when the menopausal period begins after 60. This is characteristic of only 3% of women.

When the menopausal period comes

The whole process is conventionally divided into three main stages, each of which has its own characteristics. The first is premenopause. In this state, the body enters after about 40-45 years. From premenopause to when menopause comes, it can take a very long time. For premenopausal stage characterized by a gradual decrease in the amount of estrogen. Monthly begin to go irregularly, may be more scarce. As a rule, this period does not cause any physical or psychological discomfort.

Changes characteristic of premenopausal organism:

  • the chances of conceiving a child are minimized,
  • the menstrual cycle goes astray
  • the gap between menstruation is getting longer,
  • gradually the amount of bleeding decreases, menstruation ends.

Next comes the turn of menopause, the period when the menopause comes. Estrogen production ends and menstruation stops completely. The climatic period lasts a year from the day when the last monthly period ends. On average, it occurs in women over the age of 51, but there are a lot of factors that influence how many years menopause begin, so it happens both earlier and later. If in premenopause, the probability of getting pregnant was still, albeit small, now it is completely excluded.

The last stage of the extinction of the functioning of the ovaries - postmenopause. It begins a year after when there is a menopause. The duration of this period depends on how quickly the endocrine system and the body as a whole adapt, but, as a rule, the symptoms disappear after 3-15 years. Postmenopause is characterized by the development of osteoporosis, diseases of the thyroid gland, heart, and blood vessels. They can begin due to the lack of sex hormones in the body. In the postmenopausal period, the following changes occur with the woman’s body:

  • skin becomes flabby,
  • thin pubic hair,
  • breast shape changes, nipples become flatter,
  • a gynecological examination reveals a lack of mucus in the cervix.

In how many years can menopause begin with risk factors

You already know that there is a notion of early menopause. It is worth explaining in more detail why this happens and how many years menopause occurs, if the extinction of the reproductive function is caused by external factors. Early menopause may begin due to:

  • surgery to remove the ovaries or uterus,
  • a series of autoimmune diseases that produce antibodies to ovarian cells,
  • dumb ovarian syndrome,
  • chromosomal abnormalities
  • hereditary predisposition
  • premature ovarian exhaustion,
  • stress,
  • radiation therapy
  • oncological diseases
  • chemotherapy,
  • bad habits, including in adolescence,
  • lack of sex life
  • uncontrolled oral contraceptives,
  • abortions,
  • gynecological diseases.

All these factors can trigger the onset of menopause in women under 45 years of age, with premenopausal premenopause. As a rule, monthly or stopped altogether, or turn into heavy bleeding. Early menopause always proceeds very abruptly, in an accelerated version. The woman has strong flushes, nervous disorders, sleep disturbances, shortness of breath, excessive sweating. The condition of her skin, hair and nails is deteriorating.


Premenopause is the initial phase of menopause. The first bells, signifying the start of the process of dying off of the eggs, are:

  • weight gain
  • dizziness and pain
  • excessive sweating

All this begins to appear closer to 50, but if the lifestyle was not perfect, then between 30 and 40 years. In 8 out of 10 women I knew, this period was 4 to 5 years long. The end of premenopause is the moment when the female genitals stop producing eggs.

The course of premenopause can be accompanied by various symptoms. Let me list some of them:

  • Increase or decrease the time period between ovulations, as well as their abundance.
  • Hot flashes and restless sleep.
  • Frequent uncontrollable mood changes, irritability.
  • Insufficient development of lubrication in the vagina.
  • Elevated cholesterol.

The beginning of the second phase - menopause, is the date of the end of the last menstruation. Due to the fact that during this period, the level of follicle-stimulating hormone significantly increases in women, the risk of developing diseases of bones, heart, obesity and diabetes increases. After 12 months from the moment of transition from premenopause to menopause, your gynecologist records the end of the second stage of menopause.

The symptoms, which were satellites of the first phase, do not bypass the second one. Women during this period can also cause inconvenience hot flashes, sleepless nights, uncontrolled mood swings. But the following symptoms are characteristic of the second phase of menopause:

  • Increased night sweats.
  • Estrogen deficiency.
  • Spontaneous urination.
  • Muscle aches.
  • Memory losses.
  • Allergic reactions.

The main cause of all the effects of menopause is the reduction of the female hormone in the body - estrogen. It affects almost everything in our body: the bones, the heart, the muscles, the functions of the brain. And its absence contributes to the weakening of immunity to various diseases.


Postmenopause is the third stage of menopause. It lasts from 5 years to the completion of the life path. A woman’s entry into this phase begins one year after the last menstruation. Watching my friends, I can say that due to the stabilization of the hormonal background, this period was accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Improving well-being.
  • Lack of mood swings.
  • Reducing the dynamics of the appearance of physical discomfort.

The Benefits Of Menopause

  1. Reducing the intensity of wilting of the skin is the first and main advantage of menopause, and more specifically, hormone replacement therapy used to prevent and dull the symptoms of menopause. An alternative to them is the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, which are obtained exclusively from plant materials and saturate the aging skin with collagen. The aging process slows down not only the dermis, but also the hair.
  2. The absence of menstruation, which means you can say no PMS, pads and tampons.
  3. Freedom of sex from birth control pills, condoms, and birth control.

Factors triggering menopause

The reason for approaching menopause and affecting its flow is our own way of life, which in most cases is not perfect. Two of my friends from ten women, zealous minions of bad habits, premenopause came about 3 years earlier.

This can also result in a number of negative factors, such as frequent use of alcohol and drugs, lack of exercise and regular sex, the harmful effects of the environment, stress, and weak immunity. An early onset of menopause may be a consequence of the surgery.

You cannot get rid of any symptom accompanying menopause forever. But they all can be treated, which reduces their activity. The actual method of treating problems with menstruation, memory lapses, pain and physical discomfort, hot flashes is replenishment of the estrogen deficiency through hormone replacement therapy. But to resort to this method is only under the strict supervision of a doctor and first go through all examinations and pass tests. This therapy is contraindicated in the presence of estrogen-dependent tumors. In this case, to muffle the above symptoms will not work.

Among folk remedies, sage, hawthorn tincture and a special herbal collection consisting of linden flowers, peppermint, fennel fruits, wormwood and buckthorn bark are capable of filling up the estrogen deficiency.

Antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs can help reduce the intensity of hot flashes. They help to eliminate the possibility of insomnia.

To solve the problem of stress and mood swings, tincture of valerian or motherwort will help. Pain and discomfort during sexual intercourse can be eliminated using a special lubricant.

For additional reading

Reaching a certain age, each woman is faced with such a manifestation of the natural female nature, as menopause. Precursors of menopause may appear after 35 years, due to factors that adversely affect the body, or surgery. Climax is a long process in which the eggs die and the woman loses her genital function. Menopause is accompanied by a number of unpleasant symptoms that cause discomfort. What are the phases of menopause, their features and consequences, how to facilitate their action - this was the article today.

1. Periods of menopause

Menopause does not occur in one day. This process can take several years.

Three types of estrogens circulate in women of reproductive age:

17-β-estradiol has the most pronounced activity. A decrease in its level normally begins about 5 years before the end of menstruation.

The solo role remains to estrone, but it cannot have the same effects on target organs as 17-β-estradiol. Therefore, all the “side effects” of the transitional phase develop.

  1. 1 Premenopause - the period from the moment of appearance of the first signs to the last menstruation.
  2. 2 Menopause - the latest independent menstruation.
  3. 3 Postmenopause - time from the last menstruation to 65-69 years.

Menopause date is set only retrospectively (that is, upon the end of the month). Every woman should keep a calendar, which marks the beginning and end of menstruation.

If the monthly periods have stopped, then this will fix this date so that after a year it can be said with confidence that the postmenopause period has begun.

In Russia, the average age of menopause is 45-50 years. But for each woman this time individually.

If menstruation stopped before 45 years old, then this is considered an early menopause. About premature menopause say when menstruation ended before 40 years.

60-80% of women with early or premature menopause suffer from undesirable manifestations.

2. How to understand that menopause begins?

If you do not go into special studies, then understand that the climacteric period began, you can change your state and the appearance of some symptoms that were not noticeable before.

The onset of menopause can be compared with the domino effect: hormonal changes affect the work of the nervous system, disrupt metabolic processes, and all together this leads to immunological changes.

The first thing a woman can pay attention to is a change in the menstrual cycle.

Fluctuations in estrogen levels make themselves felt. A decrease in their concentration activates the pituitary gland, which attempts to "stimulate" the ovaries and increases the secretion of LH and FSH.

But this can not significantly affect the gradual extinction of the function of the sex glands.

Menstruation may come regularly, but sometimes the cycle is lost, the gap between them is significantly shortened or lengthened.

The discharge itself may also vary (from daubs to heavy bleeding).

The severity of changes depends on the accumulated baggage of gynecological problems.

Fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, endometriosis themselves lead to menstrual disorders, by the time of menopause, these symptoms become more pronounced.

Manifestations of menopause are divided into three groups according to the time of their appearance:

  1. 1 Early - these are vasomotor, vegetative and emotional-psychic manifestations.
  2. 2 Deferred - appear 1-3 years after menopause - urogenital disorders (dry vagina, pain during intercourse, urination), aging of the skin and its appendages.
  3. 3 Late - These are symptoms that develop no earlier than 2-5 years after menopause, they include osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, heart disease, hypertension, insulin resistance, as well as loss of memory, vision and hearing.

It is the early signs that draw attention to themselves. They force women to see a doctor, unfortunately, not always to the gynecologist.

3. Signs of premenopause

Before the cessation of menstruation, a woman may experience the following symptoms:

  1. 1 Vasomotor: tachycardia, hot flashes, excessive sweating, low or high blood pressure, headache.
  2. 2 Emotionally-vegetative: irritability, weakness, drowsiness, feeling of depression, decreased libido.
  3. 3 Other disorders: urinary incontinence, vaginal dryness, osteoporosis and vascular lesions - do not belong to the initial signs of menopause. They appear several years after the cessation of menstruation.

Tides are the most common signs of premenopause. This is a vascular reaction, which is the appearance of a feeling of heat in the upper part of the body, reddening of the face. Observed sweating and palpitations.

For tides seasonality is characteristic. Very often, the first signs appear in autumn (September-October) or in spring (February-March).

They usually occur in the evening and at night, in some - in the morning after waking up.

Hormones and the autonomic nervous system are guilty of poor health. The neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline are involved in the regulation of body temperature and vascular tone. A sharp increase in their production leads to the expansion of blood vessels of the skin and the appearance of unpleasant sensations.

Heart palpitations are also a consequence of increased sensitivity to catecholamines. Similarly, the propensity for blood pressure surges is explained.

It should be remembered that many people have arterial hypertension even before premenopause.

To establish the connection between hypertension and menopause can be based on history. It is only necessary to clarify what symptoms occurred earlier.

Estrogens act on the brain directly, through neurons, and also indirectly through the regulation of the blood supply to its areas responsible for memory and emotions.

This indirectly explains the deterioration of cognitive functions and emotional lability.

Any diseases that a woman has acquired before the appearance of signs of menopause, only worsen the situation.

4. How to respond to the first symptoms?

Signs of menopausal syndrome are passing, they gradually fade, or their severity decreases to a minimum. Some women have to wait for this moment for about five years, and this is not easy.

No need to try to get rid of the discomfort on their own, with the help of traditional medicine, "cleansing" the body. If you go to a doctor in time, the treatment will not take much time and money.

4.1. Lifestyle

The nervous system is influenced by the external environment. The correct mode of the day, enough time for a night's rest will allow you to adjust the rhythm and the production of hormones.

Physical activity is also important. During the week it is enough to do two or three workouts of medium intensity, lasting 30 minutes each.

Too active exercises will tire, and moderate exercise will keep the body in good shape.

Those who have not yet abandoned bad habits, it's time to do it. Smoking, drinking alcohol worsen the entry into a new phase of life.

Sexual life should be regular. But we must not forget about contraception: the menstrual cycle can proceed without ovulation, but age does not exclude it completely.

Therefore, in maternity hospitals there are often women who decided to become a mother at the age of 50.

In women, as in men, basal metabolism decreases with age. Therefore, you need to take care of reducing the calorie intake.

Это делают за счет снижения доли простых углеводов и животных жиров. Сладкое, мучное, блюда с высокой калорийностью и соль следует исключить или ограничить.

The basis of the diet should be:

  1. 1 Cereals.
  2. 2 Vegetables.
  3. 3 Fruits.
  4. 4 Fermented milk products.
  5. 5 Lean meat.
  6. 6 Fish.

Do not completely abandon food containing cholesterol (eggs, butter). It is the basis for the synthesis of steroid hormones and is needed by the body. It is enough to keep balance and not to abuse such food.

4.3. Hormone replacement therapy

Lack of estrogen leads to unpleasant signs of aging. Therefore, it is logical that you can support the body and improve the quality of life, if you compensate for this deficiency.

It should be understood that hormones (HRT) are not the elixir of youth, they are not used for the prevention of menopause.

Treatment is prescribed only if indicated:

  1. 1 Beginning of climacteric disorders (hot flashes, tachycardia, nervousness, insomnia, etc.).
  2. 2 Urogenital disorders.
  3. 3 Prevention of osteoporosis.

Under the influence of drugs, vegetative disorders disappear, the intensity of hot flashes decreases, the emotional background is restored, the taste for life returns. They relieve pain in the joints and muscles, eliminate problems with sleep.

In women with premature menopause, menopause is much harder, this is due to the fact that the body was not yet ready for such an estrogen deficiency.

Those whose menopause began before age 40 should listen to the recommendations of the doctor and, in the absence of contraindications, prefer hormone therapy to folk remedies with unproven efficacy.

Preparations for HRT belong to different groups:

  1. 1 Pure estrogens.
  2. 2 The combination of estrogen + progestogen in different modes.
  3. 3 Estrogens + androgens.
  4. 4 Progestogen monotherapy (used very rarely).

Medicines can be produced in different forms: tablets must be taken orally, depot forms are injected subcutaneously. Local funds produced in the form of cream, plaster.

What form and dosage the doctor prefers depends on the nature of the manifestations and their severity.

For example, with urogenital disorders (dryness, discomfort, pain during sex, etc.), it is enough to use estrogen creams (Ovestin).

The average duration of replacement therapy ranges from 2 to 3 years. With early menopause, it is usually increased until a woman reaches the age of 50 years.

There is a risk of complications of hormone replacement therapy. It increases the likelihood of breast cancer, endometrial cancer, the risk of venous thrombosis.

However, with the observance of the rules, due examination and regular observation, one can go through perimenopause without harm to one’s health and exacerbation of concomitant diseases.

What is premenopause and how to treat it properly

Premenopause begins after 40 years. Its duration on average is from 15 to 18 months. At this interval there is a gradual decrease in the functionality of the ovaries, the end of ovulation, the periodic termination of the usual menstrual cycle.

The intervals between the monthly with each month increase. The following early signs of illness can be distinguished from the external sensations of women:

  • Tides (sudden reddening of the skin, neck, face),
  • Headaches,
  • Mood swings,
  • Palpitations,
  • Vaginal dryness,
  • Increased urination,
  • Decreased sexual activity.

Tides last about 3 minutes and occur mostly in the evenings.

In the premenopausal stage, the production of female sex hormones decreases: luteinizing and follicle-stimulating. Premenopause is also characterized by a decrease in male hormones - hyperandrogenism. Sometimes their level decreases less than female counterparts. At the same time, representatives of the fair sex can be traced to male manifestations - the growth of whiskers, the expansion of the shoulder girdle, and the roughening of the voice.

By the above changes in the body, you can determine the first signs of the disease. It should promptly consult a doctor to prevent serious complications at the stage of converting premenopause to menopause.

What are the signs of menopause and postmenopause?

Menopause is characterized by the complete cessation of estrogen release. This physiological phase is observed at the age of 50-53 years. The first signs of the condition are the formation of osteoporosis and diseases of the cardiovascular system. With the termination of the release of female sex hormones, diabetes can occur.

Postmenopause is a stage that is observed from the time of the appearance of the last menstruation to extreme old age. Hormonal studies of hormones show an increase in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. At this stage, all the symptoms of menopause disappear, so there is no rationality in conservative treatment.

Analyzing the above periods, you can calculate how long menopause lasts. Its duration is constant from the time of the last menstruation. Premenopause and menopause in combination can last from 5 to 10 years.

How to evaluate when menopause occurs

When the climacteric period comes, you need to contact a gynecologist. The main thing is to reveal this physiological period at the stage of premenopause. It is difficult to diagnose it, therefore, the examination methods are repeated after several months, regardless of the receipt of positive or negative results.

These results are due to daily fluctuations in the level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Menopause and menopause, how to treat it with HRT

Menopause and menopause are conditions that require hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This method is the basis for the prevention of subsequent concomitant changes in the woman's body: osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, osteoarthropathy, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and vascular accidents.

For the appointment of HRT are required indications. Hormone replacement therapy is prescribed in women over 45 years of age. At this stage, the aging gene is activated, which triggers pathological conditions.

What methods include hormone replacement therapy:

  1. Prescription of growth hormone,
  2. Melanotonin,
  3. Dihydroestrogen,
  4. Thyroid hormones.

Climax includes a set of pathological symptoms caused by dysregulation of progesterone and estrogen. The imbalance between these substances can cause marked clinical changes.

The severity of the disease is assessed by doctors on the tides:

  • Up to 10 per day - mild
  • Up to 20 - medium degree
  • More than 20 tides - severe.

There is a Cooperman index to evaluate when there is a menopause in a woman. It involves a ball assessment of the severity of the pathology:

  • Up to 20 points - easy stage
  • Up to 35 - average,
  • Over 35 is heavy.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) significantly improves a person’s quality of life. The addition of the body to sex hormones is necessary after the onset of the climacteric stage in the presence of complications:

  • Tides several times a day
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Discharge from the uterus,
  • Temperature rise,
  • Headaches,
  • Dizziness.

With aging, not only the amount of sex hormones is reduced, but also adrenal cortex insufficiency is observed. Obviously, to compensate for these defects, it is necessary to use hormonal drugs. However, women have developed persistent preconceptions about the harmfulness of hormone therapy, as it has pronounced side effects.

What are the data in favor of the use of HRT during menopause:

  • Any chemical non-natural substances are harmful to the body, but hormones are a natural substance,
  • During therapy, hot flashes and other signs of the disease are eliminated.
  • Normalized metabolism and hemostasis,
  • Without hormones, it is impossible to restore performance
  • HRT can alleviate post-menopausal disorders.

The pharmaceutical industry has created excellent combination products. They are used when there is marked climacteric restructuring (more than 20 tides per day). During such periods, a woman may experience depressive syndrome, the pulse rises, and dizziness appears. To prevent such changes, only HRT will help.

Modern hormone replacement therapy consists of 3 ingredients.

Opinions against HRT:

  • They have many side effects with improper dosage,
  • May induce tumor growth,
  • Sharpens the course of varicose veins,
  • Can not be used for early menopause.

Despite the many causes of climacteric conditions, the treatment of pathology is similar. The use of the above drugs is applied for a limited time to eliminate post-menopausal changes. In old age, you can not do without these drugs.

What is climax?

Menopause (menopause, menopause) is a natural aging process, characterized by the extinction of the childbearing function. As a rule, the first signs of menopause in women appear in 45-50 years. Nothing abnormal during menopause does not occur - this is an absolutely normal phase of a person’s life cycle. In men, this stage also begins at a certain point, but it begins later and is characterized by a milder course.

There are natural menopause (45-55 years), artificial (with violations of the proper functioning of the ovaries and uterus) and premature (30-35 years). The age of menopause and the signs that accompany it depend on genetic heredity, lifestyle, the presence of bad habits (especially smoking), the individual characteristics of the organism. Artificial menopause may cause pelvic irradiation, early surgery and treatment with strong drugs.

Menopause can develop over a long period - from the beginning of the first manifestations until the onset of menopause, it takes several years. During this time, individual follicles may be found in the ovaries, but with age they will atrophy and disappear. Climax includes three stages - premenopausal period, menopause and postmenopause.

The beginning of menopause (premenopause)

The average age of pre-climax is 45-50 years. In rare cases, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) occurs abruptly, but more often the stage is characterized by a gradual long course (from 2 to 10 years). During premenopausal menopausal syndrome may develop, because the changes occurring are observed not only in the reproductive organs - the bone tissue, nervous and cardiovascular systems are completely rebuilt. The beginning of menopause is characterized by the following features:

  • Monthly become irregular, at this time there is a high probability of uterine bleeding.
  • The number of follicles decreases, which reduces the probability of conception, but the possibility of becoming pregnant during this period is still there.
  • Due to the unstable content of estrogen (the main female hormone) in the blood can be observed hypersensitivity of the mammary glands.

About the onset of menopause, you can talk a year after the last menstruation. For most women, this occurs between the ages of 49-55. After the cessation of menstruation, a woman cannot become pregnant naturally. This period is accompanied by the following manifestations:

  • There is a decrease, deformation of the ovaries, oocytes are absent or their maturation is impossible.
  • Due to a decrease in the production of progesterone and estrogen, an imbalance occurs between the thyroid, adrenal and pituitary hormones. For this reason, a woman suffers from regular hot flashes, headaches, insomnia, and emotional drops.
  • Due to hormonal disruptions, the likelihood of the development of various comorbidities, such as osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, etc., increases.

What changes occur in the body of women in the premenopausal period

Premenopause is the most important phase of menopause, because at this time cardinal age-related changes begin, the nature of which determines the quality of the next 30-40 years of life. A woman needs to take a responsible attitude to her state of health, to change her lifestyle, if necessary, to undergo a course of drug treatment in order to avoid a sharp decline of the ovaries, the inevitable result of which is the general aging of the body.

Decrease in blood estrogen

At the beginning of pre-climax, a decrease in the duration of the follicular phase is noted (menstruation becomes shorter). At this time, the concentration of estrogen and progesterone in the blood is significantly reduced. It is noteworthy that the synthesis of male hormones (androgens) remains at the same level, since during menopause a significant part of estrogen is synthesized from male hormones, which are mainly in adipose tissue. The production of androgens is influenced by the pituitary FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), the synthesis of which increases at the beginning of menopause.

To determine the hormonal background, the doctor must send the patient to conduct mandatory blood tests, the results of which can be judged on the lack of estrogen. For a complete clinical picture, the patient is recommended to do an ultrasound of the uterus and appendages, mammography. If necessary, and strictly under the supervision of a gynecologist, it is possible to adjust the concentration of female hormones with the help of drug therapy.

Circulatory disorders

With age, the vascular walls become thinner and lose their natural elasticity, the heart muscle wears out and “gets tired” - these and other causes lead to drops in blood pressure, the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. Due to the aging of the body and the hormonal changes that occur, the blood circulation is disturbed in all organs, which leads to the appearance of pathologies.

As a rule, preclimax is accompanied by tachycardia (increased heart rate). In addition, a woman may feel tingling in the limbs, dizziness, feeling of pressure in the chest, suffering from migraines and weakness. Experts say that patients with cardiovascular diseases (especially hypertension) are more difficult to tolerate the onset of menopause.

Anxiety and mood swings

Hormonal disruptions and reactions to the nervous system lead to anxiety and irritability. In addition, there may be problems with memory, decreased concentration, the appearance of sudden mood swings. In rare instances, neurotic states characterized by obsessive ideas may develop. It is noteworthy that even restrained and calm women react to the onset of menopause with sensitivity, tearfulness, even hysteria, but in the later period of menopause, love for life and joy not only return, but also become stronger than at a young age.

What it is?

Menopause is a natural process, the same as, for example, puberty. Some stages are easy, but menopause is quite a difficult period. At this time, the ovaries stop producing eggs. Monthly bleeding from the vagina stops and the woman's reproductive function ends.

How does menopause begin?

This process for each woman is very individual and has its own characteristics. But, as a rule, it goes through three stages:

  • Premenopause. This period begins 8 or 10 years before menopause, when the ovaries produce fewer estrogens. And in the last 2-3 years, these hormones cease to be fully developed.
  • Menopause. During this period, no eggs or estrogens are formed. Also at this time stop monthly bleeding. The period lasts about 12 months. Then it can be argued that the menopause period is over. After that, a woman can not get pregnant.
  • Postmenopause. During this period, women do not feel hot flashes, but it is still the most dangerous. Increases the likelihood of heart disease and the development of osteoporosis. This period lasts until the end of life.

Such a process of changing the female body is inevitable. It is quite long. The main signs of its occurrence:

  1. Dryness of the skin, vagina and eyeball.
  2. Sleep difficulty (difficulty falling asleep, early awakening, inability to fall asleep again if you had to wake up in the middle of the night due to noise).
  3. Incontinence when sneezing or coughing.
  4. Increased sweating.

The beginning of menopause is indicated by frequent insomnia with obsessive thoughts about any problems. Many women during this period complain of an increase in heart rate. Due to circulatory disorders, numbness of the extremities occurs. Most women pursue anxiety and irritability, their mood changes dramatically.

Changing the contours of the female figure. Weight gain occurs. The most recognizable and characteristic of this stage are thermal tides (sharp sensations of heat, distributed throughout the body). At this point, red spots may appear on the chest, neck, hands.

The duration of such heat flashes can last from 30 seconds to several hours. Similar symptoms indicate a slowdown in ovarian function and subsequent hormonal alteration. Hot flashes can disturb women for many years even after the end of menopause.

Unfortunately, at this stage the woman’s body begins to age sharply. У некоторых симптомы менопаузы могут длиться месяцы, а у других оставаться в течение нескольких лет после этого.

Когда ожидать?

На то, во сколько лет начинается климакс у женщин, могут влиять такие факторы:

  • bad habits,
  • количество беременностей и абортов,
  • психоэмоциональное состояние.

When asking how the menopause begins and when, you should know that it can start from the age of 35 or from the age of 50. But it often happens between 48 and 54 years. On average, about 51 years.

Premature menopause is considered the period between 40 and 45 years, and later, when a woman in 55 years continues menstruation. This age is primarily determined by genes. In addition, menopause can be caused by surgery to remove the uterus or certain diseases.

Causes of early menopause

The main reason for the development of early menopause is considered to be problems with the ovaries, which are affected by autoimmune processes, the presence of tumors, smoking, injuries, infections of the genital tract, radioactive effects and chronic diseases. Hereditary factors also affect the onset of menopause.

This process is not physiological. Cessation of egg production in women under 40 years of age is not a normal process. As a result, a woman comes infertility. Against this background, osteoporosis can also begin, the thyroid gland deteriorates and other autoimmune diseases can occur.

Early menopause can begin even in adolescence. The age of 40 years symbolizes only a conditional distinction. On the beginning of early menopause can indicate a blood test that determines the hormonal level. In addition, a woman in this period there is a high level of FSH, stimulating the production of estrogen.

Late menopause

If a woman's menstruation did not stop at 55 years old, then this is considered late menopause. It is noted in 5% of women. The main reasons for this condition are:

  1. Heredity. In this case, there is no reason for concern. In this case, the threat to the health of women does not occur.
  2. Tumors affecting the formation of estrogen. If the level of these hormones is too high, it may indicate the presence of a tumor in the breast or reproductive organs of a woman.
  3. Medications. This may affect some drugs, for example, drugs used to treat cancer.
  4. Radiation exposure.

If during late menopause, due to hereditary factors, the woman feels well, and the examination did not confirm the presence of health threatening factors, then this has many positive aspects. Bone tissue remains strong for a longer time. The woman has a more stable mental state, sound sleep, good thinking and memory.

Externally, a woman has a less pronounced aging, her hair does not lose collagen and practically does not turn gray. Weight remains normal, and the heart works in a normal rhythm. The probability of a stroke and a heart attack decreases. Reproductive function is also preserved.

On the video about the symptoms of menopause in women

Recommendations to women

Knowing the main symptoms of menopause, you can detect them in time and, possibly, postpone its onset, as well as ease its course. When the first symptoms do not delay the visit to the gynecologist. He will recommend contraceptives to reduce the risk of pregnancy.

Having reached climacteric age, you can consult a doctor to choose the option of using hormone therapy to maintain the right balance in the body. Do not be afraid of this method of treatment. It allows you to replenish the missing amount of estrogen, which the body can no longer produce in sufficient quantities, and to improve the general well-being of a woman.

Additional sources of phytoestrogens in the body can be foods that are rich in such compounds: flax seeds, legumes, barley, soybeans, as well as apples, carrots and grants.

How to eliminate unpleasant manifestations?

You can use the following methods to alleviate the symptoms of menopause:

  1. During high tides, it is recommended to wear lighter clothing according to the season. At the time of their beginning should be inhaled slowly and deeply.
  2. You can use the practiced methods of relaxation, for example, yoga.
  3. Watch your diet. The use of dairy products, milk should be increased in the diet, and alcohol and coffee should be reduced or completely excluded from use.

Can I get pregnant during menopause? Read in the article about menopause and the possibility of conception, issues of prevention, unwanted pregnancy.

How to take Remens drops in menopause? Details here.

Is treatment required?

You should regularly visit the doctor during menopause, first of all, so as not to miss the beginning of a serious illness. To alleviate the sensations during hot flashes, the doctor may prescribe estrogen or progesterone. It also helps to cope with osteoporosis. If the uterus has been removed from the woman, then in this case the treatment is carried out only with estrogen.

Hormone therapy is contraindicated in women who have breast or uterine cancer, as well as increased blood clotting, stroke or liver disease.

You should not use hormone treatment if vaginal bleeding occurs.

To cope with outbreaks of fever or mood swings, other medications can replace hormone therapy:

  • antidepressants
  • antiseptics
  • drugs for the treatment of blood pressure.

Do not panic because of the outbreak of menopause. It should learn to live and enjoy life. If you have any health problems, you should consult a doctor. In how many years the climax does not begin, it is better to be under the supervision of experienced doctors in such a period.

brief information

Menopause is a time when a woman stops her menstrual cycles. In connection with the transition to menopause, hormonal changes occur in the body, which affect its well-being and have various manifestations. When menopause occurs, the strength of bone tissue often decreases, which is due to its rarefaction. The level of cholesterol in the blood rises, which increases the risk of heart disease.

How many years does menopause begin and how long does it last?

The average age of women during menopause is 51 years. Average duration is from 48 to 55 years. About 1% of women are faced with the premature onset of this condition, when the first signs of menopause appear already before the age of 40 years.

The onset of menopause occurs earlier in women who smoke, have never been pregnant or live in highlands.

Hormonal changes associated with menopause (menopause) usually begin 4-5 years before the last menstrual bleeding, this time is called premenopause. Women begin to experience the first symptoms of menopause, even if their menstruation is still normal. The premenopause period and the year after it are united by the concept of "perimenopause". Postmenopause is the time that begins with menopause and lasts up to about 70 years (up to 5 years - early, after that - late postmenopause).

Menopause is the time when a woman has no menstruation for a year. However, the menopause, preceding the cessation of menstruation and continuing thereafter, has a different duration and in some women can last up to 10 years. Menopause usually occurs after the age of 45-50 years. If it comes to 45 years old - it is called early, and up to 40 - premature. Most of these patients develop menopausal syndrome.

Late menopause

It occurs in women over the age of 55 years. The reasons are usually hidden in the genetic characteristics, artificially delay the onset of menopause is almost impossible. The danger of such a condition lies in the increased risk of cancer of the ovaries and mammary glands, because these are estrogen-dependent tumors. Therefore, with continued secretion of sex hormones, the likelihood of such diseases increases. To prevent negative consequences, every woman, regardless of age, should be examined annually by a gynecologist, and also should have a mammogram on time.

Surgical menopause

The termination of menstrual bleeding in this case is associated with the removal of the ovaries. This may be necessary in such diseases as ovarian cancer, polycystic ovarian endometriosis, neglected inflammatory processes of the genital organs, and tuberculosis. After surgery, an artificial menopause occurs, and its symptoms begin suddenly and develop rapidly. In order to avoid such a condition, immediately after the operation it is necessary to start taking hormonal preparations that will imitate a normal cycle.

If the uterus is preserved, then with a discontinuous regimen, menstruation will also be preserved. Climax after removal of the uterus occurs more often with simultaneous removal of the ovaries. Such an operation is necessary for endometriosis, tumors, prolapse of the genitals. However, even when the ovaries are stored, their function after hysterectomy fades away earlier than normal. Such patients need competent hormone therapy.

Causes of menopause

Climax occurs due to a complex of complex hormonal changes. First of all, with the onset of this period, a decrease in the number of active eggs in the ovaries is associated. At birth, women have from 1 to 3 million eggs, and by the beginning of the menstruation, the girl usually has about 400,000. About 10,000 eggs remain by the time of menopause.

A small percentage of eggs are lost during monthly ovulation during the menstrual cycle. Most of them undergo atresia (degeneration and subsequent resorption of immature ovarian follicles).

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is responsible for the growth of follicles in the first half of the menstrual cycle. As menopause approaches, the eggs become less and less sensitive to this hormone, and the ovaries drastically reduce the production of estrogen. The secretion of FSH compensatory increases, but it is not able to restore ovarian function. This condition is called hypergonadotropic hypogonadism.

During menopause, the number of eggs decreases very quickly, and after the cessation of menstruation, single follicles remain, and then they disappear.

Estrogens (female hormones) affect many parts of the body, including blood vessels, heart, bones, mammary glands, uterus, urinary system, skin and brain. A decrease in estrogen levels is considered to be the cause of many menopause symptoms. With the onset of menopause in the ovaries, the production of the hormone testosterone, which is responsible for sexual desire, also decreases.

How does menopause manifest? Here are 10 common signs of menopause:

  1. His very first companions - tides. According to some studies, tides occur in 75% of women. Symptoms of this condition may vary. Usually the tide is felt as a feeling of warmth that spreads throughout the body, lasting from 30 seconds to several minutes. This condition is often accompanied by reddening of the skin, palpitations, chills, sweating and insomnia. Hot flushes usually last up to 3 years, but for some women they persist for 5 years or more. In a small number of patients, the duration of hot flashes up to 15 years was noted.
  2. Incontinence, burning sensation when urinating.
  3. Vaginal changes: Estrogens affect the vaginal mucosa, so perimenopausal pain may occur during intercourse and changes in the nature of vaginal discharge. Allocation during menopause may resemble menstruation, but when they appear, you should consult a doctor.
  4. The mammary glands change shape, which is associated with the gradual atrophy of the glandular tissue.
  5. Dryness and thinning of the skin, hair loss.
  6. Rapid loss of bone mass. Most women reach the peak of bone density at the age of 25-30 years, then the bone mass decreases annually by 0.13%. During menopause, the rate of loss of bone mass increases to 3% per year. This condition causes neither pain nor any other unpleasant sensations.
    However, osteoporosis gradually develops, which can lead to bone fractures. Fractures can significantly impair the quality of life and even cause death. Often there is a fracture of the femoral neck or spine in the fall, even from a height of their own height.
  7. During menopause, the cholesterol profile changes significantly. The level of total and "bad" cholesterol increases. This increases the risk of heart disease and blood vessels, blood pressure may increase. Many patients also complain of pressure drop and headaches.
  8. Increased likelihood of heart disease after menopause. It is unclear how much this is connected with the aging process, and how much - with hormonal changes in the body. In case of premature menopause or surgical removal of the ovaries, cardiovascular diseases occur already at a young age.
    In many ways, the reason for this is the development of tissue resistance to insulin in perimenopause, which leads to increased blood clot formation in the vessels and an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Dyshormonal myocardiodystrophy also develops, manifested by cardiac arrhythmias, decreased exercise tolerance, shortness of breath, stitching pains in the apex of the heart.
  9. A study of healthy women in menopause showed that, on average, their body weight increases by 5 kg over 3 years. Among the possible causes are both manifestations of menopause and general aging of the body. Formed so-called menopausal metabolic syndrome, accompanied, in addition to weight gain, impaired metabolism of fats and carbohydrates with the formation of prerequisites for the development of myocardial ischemia and type 2 diabetes.
  10. Often there are emotional changes - irritability, anxiety, depression, unmotivated weakness, instability of mood. They are associated with both the direct influence of hormonal imbalance and stress factors - loneliness, the fear of losing beauty, the feeling of approaching old age, and so on.

Monthly with menopause, first normal, regular, as a result of the ovulatory cycle. The number of anovulatory cycles gradually increases (without the formation of a mature egg and its exit into the abdominal cavity), bleeding becomes irregular, long delays are possible, as well as uterine bleeding.

Causes of bleeding during menopause:

  • natural hormonal changes
  • diseases of the reproductive system: myoma, tumor or polyp of the endometrium and others,
  • hormonal drugs,
  • diseases of other organs, such as the blood or liver system.

In addition to trouble, perimenopause can help a woman. So, often uterine fibroids and endometrioid ovarian cyst with menopause begin to gradually decrease, since the stimulating effect of estrogens in these diseases ceases. However, this applies only to small formations.

Large fibroids, by contrast, can cause uterine bleeding. If she has a leg, her torsion and necrosis of the myoma node is likely, which requires immediate surgery. If a patient does not have a diminished ovarian cyst after menopause, this is a very suspicious sign regarding the development of a tumor of this organ. In most cases, such cysts are subject to surgical removal, which can be done with the help of laparoscopy (without long incisions and difficult surgery).

When to see a doctor

All women in the perimenopausal period should be fully examined every year by a general practitioner or family physician. In addition, they should be examined by a gynecologist and an examination of the mammary glands, including mammography. Breast ultrasound in menopause is usually uninformative because of the onset of atrophy of the glandular tissue, which makes it difficult to detect lesions in the gland.

Women of this age need to be aware of the risk factors for heart disease and intestinal cancer and, in consultation with their doctor, undergo a screening test for these diseases.

Is it possible to get pregnant during menopause?

Women with persistent menstruation (even irregular) and continuing sex life can become pregnant. To prevent pregnancy and alleviate the symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, your doctor may recommend taking oral contraceptives containing low doses of estrogen. In any case, when menstruation is delayed for more than 1-3 days, it is recommended to make a home pregnancy test in order to make a difficult, but very important decision about the birth of a baby in every woman’s life.

Drugs and lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, can help deal with hot flashes and other menopause symptoms, including high cholesterol and bone loss.

During menopause, you must follow the menstrual flow. It should immediately consult a doctor with such signs:

  • bleeding associated with abdominal pain
  • the release of dark clots
  • more heavy bleeding than before
  • reduction of the interval between bleeding less than 3 weeks, or lengthening it - more than 3 months.


In order to determine that a woman is in the period of perimenopause, blood is tested for FSH, that is, hormones are analyzed. An increased concentration of FSH and a reduced level of estrogen are determined. Тест на климакс дает такие результаты:

  • содержание эстрадиола в крови менее 80 пмоль/л,
  • уровень ФСГ больше, чем лютеинизирующего гормона,
  • концентрация эстрона больше, чем эстрадиола,
  • testosterone levels can be lowered or relatively elevated.

Additionally, a Pap smear test is performed, the function of the thyroid gland is assessed, a biochemical blood test and a coagulogram are taken. To determine the condition of the endometrium, transvaginal ultrasound is prescribed.

The standard for detecting bone loss, or menopausal osteoporosis, is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DERA). This study determines bone density and compares it to a normal value for healthy young women. The World Health Organization defines osteoporosis as a decrease in bone density by more than 2.5 standard deviations from the mean. A condition known as osteopenia means less severe bone mass loss (from 1 to 2.5 standard deviations).

Dera is usually performed before prescribing osteoporosis drugs that restore the minerals in the bones. Evaluated the head of the thigh and the bones of the lower spine. Scanning is repeated 1 time in 2 years to assess the effectiveness of treatment.

A simple screening for osteoporosis can be performed using ultrasound (ultrasound) examination of the calcaneus. If low bone density is detected, the patient should be directed to DARA.

To determine the risk of heart disease, the doctor prescribes a blood test for cholesterol. If cholesterol is high, heart disease risk factors are corrected.

Climax in women is not a disease. There is no medicine for him and it is impossible to recover completely. However, doctors may suggest different ways to relieve hot flashes and other symptoms that worsen a woman’s quality of life. There are many medications to prevent and control high cholesterol levels in the blood and to treat bone loss resulting from perimenopause. However, many women in menopause do not need special treatment. On the question of what to take in every woman's menopause, only a doctor can answer after a thorough examination of the patient.

Lifestyle change for the prevention of menopause

A healthy lifestyle and some cosmetic treatments can help with the tides. Many women believe that regular aerobic exercise reduces the intensity of hot flashes, although special studies have not confirmed this assumption. However, regular exercise is very helpful in dealing with obesity.


Spicy foods, caffeine and alcohol should be avoided. A diet low in fat and cholesterol helps reduce the risk of heart disease, as well as fight the development of the metabolic syndrome - one of the main dangers that await a woman in this vulnerable period of her life.

For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to use a sufficient amount of calcium and some strength training. There is enough effort with which a woman carries her own weight, so walking, gardening, and tennis are useful. These methods will help strengthen the bones.

How to lose weight with menopause? The recipe is simple - to reduce the calorie intake and increase physical activity. This should be done at the first symptoms of menopause, in order to maintain normal weight. Frequent meals in small portions while maintaining the calorie content of the diet will not help in the fight against excess weight.

Hormone therapy to combat the symptoms of menopause

Is it possible to postpone the climax? Since it is directly associated with a fall in the concentration of sex hormones, their additional purpose helps to fight its symptoms. It is necessary to use the minimum effective doses of hormones, gradually canceling them in postmenopause. When the uterus is preserved, a combination of estrogen and progesterone is prescribed.

Estrogens are available in various forms, including vaginal creams, tablets and rings, which are mainly used for vaginal symptoms, as patches, skin sprays and gels, as well as oral tablets. Combination therapy is usually used for oral administration. Gels and patches are convenient because they rarely cause side effects.

Before you start taking hormones and regularly during their use, women should undergo breast examination and mammography. Patients with heart disease should not use these drugs.

In perimenopause, hormone therapy is prescribed in such cases:

  • hot flashes, emotional disturbances,
  • vaginal dryness, urinary incontinence (local forms of estrogen are used, for example, “Ovestin” plugs),
  • prevention of osteoporosis in patients with an increased risk of this condition.

After the cessation of menstruation, hormones are prescribed for the following indications:

  • for short-term use - treatment of emotional, cosmetic, vegetative and other disorders,
  • for long-term use - prevention of osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, depression, heart disease,
  • treatment of vaginal dryness and urinary incontinence, normalization of sexual life,
  • improving the patient's quality of life.

Usually, hormone replacement therapy is prescribed for a period of 3 years or more.

Hormone therapy is contraindicated in such situations:

  • cancer of estrogen-dependent organs (endometrium, mammary glands),
  • uterine bleeding of obscure nature,
  • endometrial hyperplastic process, not previously treated,
  • venous thrombosis of the lower extremities,
  • coronary heart disease,
  • hypertension without matched treatment,
  • acute liver disease,
  • porphyria,
  • individual intolerance.

There are relative contraindications when hormones can be used with caution:

  • myoma with menopause,
  • endometriosis and adenomyosis,
  • migraine,
  • previous venous thrombosis,
  • an increase in the concentration of triglycerides in the blood of hereditary nature,
  • gallstones,
  • epilepsy,
  • increased risk of breast cancer.

The use of hormones in menopause is limited in such situations:

  • The beginning of the reception over the age of 65,
  • use only for the prevention of heart disease or dementia without signs of menopausal syndrome (the benefits of this use have not been proven).

The best time for prescribing hormones is perimenopause, that is, the time from the appearance of the first symptoms until the end of the year that has elapsed after the final cessation of menstruation.

Only estrogens can be prescribed, only gestagens or their combination. Estrogen monotherapy is used in women with a womb removed. They are taken internally intermittently or continuously, and also use gels and patches with these substances.

Treatment of menopause with estrogen does not protect against pregnancy. For contraception should use combination drugs.

Women taking estrogen have a greater risk of such conditions:

  • gallstones,
  • increased triglycerides,
  • excessive blood clotting.

Gestagen monotherapy (for example, Duphaston) is performed in women with uterine myoma and / or adenomyosis who do not need surgical treatment, as well as uterine bleeding. Drugs are prescribed in the form of tablets in intermittent mode. Also, the patient may be asked to install an intrauterine device containing levonorgestrel (Mirena).

Women with a preserved uterus are shown a discontinuous or continuous regimen of taking 2- or 3-phase contraceptives containing estrogens and gestagens (for example, femoston).

Long-term studies of patients taking combined hormone therapy (GT) with estrogen and progesterone have shown that they increase the likelihood of heart attack, stroke and breast cancer compared with women who did not receive HT. Taking estrogen alone was associated with an increased risk of stroke, but not a heart attack or breast cancer. Estrogen-only therapy, however, is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining).

Recent studies have shown that in postmenopausal elderly women who receive HT, cardiovascular risks increase. The decision on hormone therapy should be individual for each patient, based on her medical history, symptoms, and on the assessment of the potential benefits and risk of hormone administration.

There is an alternative remedy, shown in the patient's asthenia (weakening), sexual dysfunction, small uterus myoma or a previously transferred endometrial hyperplastic process. It is a tissue-specific regulator of estrogen activity Tibolone - a drug with a unique effect, which repeats the effects of estrogens, androgens and gestagens in tissues.

What is bioidentical hormone therapy?

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of the so-called bioidentical hormone therapy for menopause. Bio-identical hormones are medicines that contain hormones with the same chemical formula that natural substances possess. Hormones are created in the laboratory by modifying compounds derived from natural plant products. Most of these drugs are not standardized.

Advocates of bioidentical hormone therapy claim that products used in the form of creams or gels are absorbed into the body in their active form without being converted in the liver, therefore their use helps to avoid the likely adverse effects of hormones synthetically produced. However, scientific research aimed at ascertaining the efficacy and safety of these drugs was not carried out.

In Russia, anti-aging programs have just begun to appear, offering a “cocktail” of bioidentical drugs selected individually for each patient. In many cases, such advertising is not true. Even in the USA, where such a method of treatment is more common and studied, more and more obstacles are put in its way. Whether this is related to the interests of pharmaceutical companies that produce synthetic hormones, or really the effectiveness of bioidentical therapy is greatly exaggerated - so far no one can say.

Is it possible to treat the manifestations of menopause with non-hormonal drugs?

Studies have shown that drugs that are usually prescribed for conditions such as depression and anxiety can be used to reduce hot flashes — selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and norepinephrine inhibitors. So, Paroxetine was recommended for the treatment of moderate and severe hot flashes.

Scientists believe that psychosomatics plays a significant role in the development of severe symptoms - a manifestation of experiences in the form of painful symptoms. It has been proved, for example, that climacter is more easily tolerated by large women, but among single and divorced people who are acutely aware of the approach of old age and the frustration of hoping for a happy family life, psychosomatic and emotional problems are often more pronounced. Phyto antidepressants, primarily St. John's wort herb, can be recommended to such patients. It is part of such a drug as Deprim Forte. It is indicated for chronic fatigue, constant depression, insomnia, weakness, irritability, apathy, and other emotional disorders.

For the treatment of hot flushes and progestin drugs are used. However, they are usually used in a short course with gradual cancellation. Prolonged use of progestin can lead to weight gain.

Severe menopause is often accompanied by osteoporosis. For its prevention and treatment, drugs of different groups are prescribed:

  • bisphosphonates (FOSAMAX) to reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women and reduce the risk of fractures in osteoporosis,
  • raloxifene - a selective estrogen receptor modulator, reduces the risk of fractures,
  • calcitonin (Miacalcic) - a spray in the nose, strengthens the bones, especially the spine, preventing compression fractures and their consequences, such as back pain and reduced growth,
  • in some cases, parathyroid hormone can be used.

In some studies, a good effect of melatonin drugs (Melaxen) in the complex therapy of menopausal syndrome has been shown. Their purpose helps to quickly get rid of menopausal symptoms.

Alternative Therapies

It is known that hormone replacement therapy reliably reduces the manifestations of menopause, urination disorders and sexual function, prevents the development of osteoporosis. However, its negative characteristics — an increase in the likelihood of breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases — often cause women to stop taking hormones. Therefore, scientists are looking for an alternative to estrogen, which would not affect the incidence of tumors and strengthen the bones. One of the proposed options is cimicifuga.


Klopogon (cimicifuga) is a commonly used vegetable supplement that is believed to be able to reduce the intensity of tides. However, clinical trials of this plant last a very short time. In addition, one of the drawbacks of these studies is the lack of placebo control, that is, it is unclear whether their effect is due to therapeutic effects or self-hypnosis. The mechanism of action of the drug has also been studied: it has been established that, for the time being, an unknown component of the extract of cimicifuga somehow interacts with an as yet unidentified estrogen-binding protein.

It is possible that the positive effect of tsimizifuga on hot flashes is due to its ability to block serotonin receptors. In addition, the experiment shows the strengthening effect of this plant on bone tissue. However, a possible harmful effect of black cohosh on liver tissue is assumed.

Given the above, the German Agency for Herbal Medicine does not recommend taking preparations of cimicifuga (widely advertised in our country as “natural” and “non-hormonal”) for more than six months. Side effects include nausea, dizziness, blurred vision, slow heartbeat, and sweating. Zimitsifugi preparations are extremely rarely used in several countries, including the United States.


Vegetable estrogens (phytoestrogens), such as soy protein, are quite popular in menopause. Data on their effectiveness is limited. Phytoestrogens in menopause are natural plant estrogens (isoflavones), the use of which has consequences similar to the use of synthetic estrogens. It is noteworthy that in the study of women who have undergone breast cancer, the safety of soy has not been proven, but data were obtained on its ineffectiveness in relation to the symptoms of menopause. Sources of soybean in food can be soybeans, tofu, soy milk and flour. Soy sauce and soybean oil do not contain isoflavones.

Only a few inconclusive and controversial studies of herbal medicine during menopause were conducted, in which it was shown that herbs such as dagil, meadow clover, primrose, and some others, as well as homeopathy, can be used in menopause, but only under medical supervision and with great care, to avoid side effects and unexpected interactions with other drugs.

According to the US National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, non-drug methods such as meditation, acupuncture, hypnotherapy, biofeedback, breathing exercises (especially slow breathing with the inclusion of the abdominal muscles) can be used to alleviate the symptoms of menopause. Yoga is very useful, it not only strengthens the body, but also trains the spirit.

How to ease menopause

Climax cannot be prevented, but measures can be taken to reduce the risk of related problems. Some trace elements and vitamins for menopause are especially helpful. A woman should consume 1200-1500 mg of calcium per day with food, if necessary, use calcium-containing dietary supplements, as well as 800 units of vitamin D.

With the help of proper nutrition, you can quite easily get 1000-1500 mg of calcium per day. So, in a glass of ordinary or skim milk contains 300 mg of calcium, in a glass of kefir - 400 mg, in 100 grams of salmon contains 200 mg of this trace element.

Additionally, you can take dietary supplements with calcium. Calcium carbonate preparations are the cheapest, but in some women they can cause bloating. The best option are calcium citrate supplements.

You need to know that no more than 500 mg of calcium is absorbed from a single serving of food or supplement, therefore its intake must be distributed throughout the day. Excessive doses of this trace element can not be taken, as they can lead to urolithiasis. Women with kidney disease before using any calcium supplements should consult a doctor. An overdose of vitamin D should also be avoided.

For a full life during the menopause, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the skin: strengthen it with massage and hardware procedures, moisturize using special anti-aging creams, as well as be sure to protect from the sun. Soft scrubs are also helpful, accelerating the renewal of skin cells.

Наконец, несколько психологических советов, которые могут помочь справиться с растерянностью перед климаксом:

  • в это время женщина уже знает, что она может дать своему спутнику и что хочет получить в ответ, во многих случаях у нее сложившиеся отношения не только с мужчиной, но и в целом с жизнью,
  • at that age, much is already known about her own sexuality, a woman can allow herself to be relaxed, she has something to talk about, an intelligent man is just more interesting with her than with some young girls,
  • children have already grown up or become adults, you can relax a little and realize your old dreams, especially since by this time important steps have already been taken along the career ladder, and financial independence has been achieved,
  • a woman can start to take care of herself, update her wardrobe, hair, makeup, so she will become more confident and attractive,
  • finally, you can stop depending on the opinions of people around you, menopause is the time of liberation from complexes and the attainment of freedom.

So, the right attitude to yourself and care about your health will help to survive such a difficult period in life, as menopause.

How does menopause in women

The beginning of menopause on average occurs around 40-45 years and is called the premenopausal period. This is the time when the production of estrogen begins to decrease in the ovaries, which is accompanied by failures of the menstrual cycle. When menopause begins in women, the symptoms manifest themselves in different ways. It depends on the features of the body of a woman. But there are also basic, common to all symptoms that characterize the onset of menopause. Signs of an upcoming menopause:

  • violation of the menstrual cycle,
  • hot flashes
  • cardiopalmus,
  • weight gain
  • insomnia,
  • excessive sweating
  • mood swings, irritability,
  • reduced attention and performance,
  • headache attacks.

All the listed symptoms and signs can pass as separately, or together. During menopause, estrogen levels drop dramatically, leading to the cessation of menstruation. Then begins menopausewhose duration is 1 year from the date of the last menstruation. The exact age of this period is directly dependent on genetic predisposition. In women, menopause always occurs at the age at which this occurred with female relatives. At the moment when the menopause passes - comes postmenopause.

Symptom Description

Many women know the main symptoms of menopause, but not many know what they are for. The proper functioning of the female reproductive system is associated with normal hormone levels. As soon as an imbalance of hormones occurs in the body, various unpleasant symptoms begin to manifest.

Signs of hot flashes are always accompanied by a sharp sensation of heat in the face, neck, chest or arms. Suddenly, a reddening of the face begins, throws into the sweat, there is a feeling of lack of air. At the same time, the body temperature may rise, nausea and headache appear. Symptoms such as excessive sweating during sleep, begin due to a violation of the process of thermoregulation due to a lack of estrogen. In women during menopause, blood vessels constrict at night, the body temperature rises, due to which the sweat glands begin to work very intensively.

Disturbances or failures of the menstrual cycle - natural symptoms and signs of the coming menopause. The duration of menstrual flow is reduced, the cycle is lost. Monthly can come late, or earlier than the expected date. The excreta themselves can be both abundant and scanty.

The variability of mood in women also depends on the imbalance of hormonal levels. A woman can admire or rejoice, and after a while start to cry, irritability increases, accompanied by aggressive behavior.

When the increase in body weight begins, not many can compare this with menopause. In fact, due to the reduced production of certain hormones, the activity of metabolic processes in women is significantly reduced in the body. Metabolism is reduced, as well as energy consumption, while adipose tissue begins to grow, in order to replenish estrogen reserves.

How to facilitate the onset of menopause?

Every woman should understand that menopause is not a disease. Although many of the symptoms of menopause cause a lot of problems and discomforts, do not get depressed. There are several helpful recommendations to alleviate some of the symptoms during menopause:

  • Do not worry about trifles, avoid stressful situations.
  • It is advisable to quit smoking, as well as reduce alcohol consumption.
  • Walk more in the fresh air, keep an active lifestyle (for example, sign up for a swimming pool or fitness).
  • Do not dwell on food, eat more vegetables and fruits, enrich the menu with calcium.
  • During menopause it is not advisable to often go to the bath or sauna.

Factors affecting the duration of menopause

Genetic characteristics of the body

Heredity plays an important role in the age at which menopause occurs. If the mother's onset of climacteric changes in the body began at the age of 45, then the daughter should expect a menopause at about the same time.

The exact date of the onset of menopause will not tell any certified gynecologist. However, it is important to know that even if, for hereditary reasons, women in the genus menopause did not begin at the age of 55, the influence of bad habits, frequent abortions and unhealthy lifestyles can significantly reduce this figure up to 30 - 35 years.

The influence of negative factors on the approach and the onset of menopause at an early age has been repeatedly confirmed by scientific studies.

Early menopause. Age and features

The gynecologists consider the age of 45 - 55 years to be the norm of the first symptoms of menopause in women. If the first symptoms of menopause appear at the age of 30 - 45 years, then we are talking about an early menopause. The decrease in the age threshold is due to violations occurring in the female body due to the influence of negative factors.

The extinction of childbearing functions earlier than 45 years is considered a deviation from the norm and is called the "early menopause." This pathology is determined by hormonal disorders causing changes in the normal functional activity of the ovaries. Such changes are not only undesirable for women.

Menopause passes with numerous complications and there is a risk of various diseases:

  • The risk increases the occurrence of diseases of the cardiovascular system of the body.
  • Risk increases such a dangerous disease as osteoporosis, which leads to a decrease in bone strength.

  • Internal and external processes aging of the female body is accelerated.
  • Due to frequent tides of menopause, the nervous system weakens, disorders and diseases of the nervous system are possible. It is this symptom that affects the emotional state of a woman, like no other, begins to undermine health and self-esteem.
  • Immunity decreases.
  • Danger increases the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease.

Therefore, when approaching the age of 40, you must listen to your body and do everything possible to delay the onset of early menopause.

Menopause periods

Climax - a complex physiological process, the duration of which can range from 5 years to 12-15 years. During this time, a number of physiological changes occur in the female body, affecting its physical and psycho-emotional state.

The reproductive activity of a woman is divided into three periods:

Symptoms of early menopause

The most difficult of the periods is menopause. Changes in the female body during menopause occur over a very long period of 3 to 10 years.

It is very important to know the symptoms that indicate the onset of menopause. In general, the reproductive system works well and debugged. As soon as malfunctions in the ovaries and genitals begin, the slightest hormonal disturbances cause a number of changes, knowing about which any woman can prepare for the difficult period of her life.

Due to this, it is possible to significantly alleviate the physical and emotional state.

Change in the frequency of menstruation

The smallest deviations in favor of increasing or decreasing the menstrual cycle suggest that the body begins an irreversible process of gradual decrease in ovarian function due to a decrease in the number of sex hormones produced.

The reproductive system produces fewer follicles. Allocation during menstruation is also uneven: from strong clots, to a significant decrease in volume. During this period it is very difficult to predict the subsequent menstrual cycle, but the probability of pregnancy lasts until the end of menopause.

Therefore, women need to take precautions to avoid unplanned pregnancy.

In conjunction with the above symptom, the tides appear almost immediately after the first changes in the menstrual cycle and have the maximum intensity during the entire menopause. Due to the lack of sex hormones, the body experiences a so-called “break-up”.

It is important for every woman of the age to know how the surge of menopause in women begins. Symptoms (reviews of signs - at the end of the article) such an unpleasant state is manifested by sudden tides - rolling hot waves that fall down after a few minutes, repeatedly at any time of the day. They may also be disturbed at night, mostly in the predawn hours.

At the end of the tide, the woman becomes covered in sweat, she may feel chills, headache and severe fatigue. Sometimes there is tension in the chest. The mammary gland is sensitive to changes in hormonal levels, so there is a feeling of heaviness or aching pain in the chest.

Emotional background instability

Lack of hormones and restructuring of the body affect the central nervous system. Therefore, in the climacteric period, such emotions as tearfulness, unreasonable irritability, anxiety are often manifested. Due to these reasons restful sleep is disturbed, some women suffer from insomnia, increasingly manifested fatigue of the whole organism.

Decreased performance, it is becoming increasingly difficult to focus on something meaningful. Often, gynecologists note a decrease in mental performance of the brain and memory.

Sexual activity decreases

For many women, sex, as a part of life, loses its importance due to the reduced amount of hormones responsible for sexual activity. For many women, sex can cause rejection due to the manifestation of pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse, due to the reduction of vaginal mucous discharge during menopause.

There are failures in the urinary system

Frequent urination, occasionally even urinary incontinence when coughing or slight tension of the abdominal muscles.

There are also external changes occurring in the female body during menopause. Dry skin, weak hair and nails, the appearance of wrinkles - the very first signs of menopause. In addition, the bones become fragile, the blood cholesterol level increases, all metabolic processes in the body slow down. Gynecologists note that during this period more and more women are gaining weight.

Other changes in well-being

More than 80% of women in the period of menopause note the following changes in the body: the appearance of tingling or numbness in the fingers, often cold feet, rapid or slow heartbeat, worries about lack of air, causeless dizziness. All these symptoms indicate a change in the work of peripheral vessels.

Blood pressure is unstable.Often there are jumps in one direction or another. Lack of estrogen, produced in smaller quantities, affects the state of the blood vessels, which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The likelihood of stroke and myocardial infarction increases significantly. It is during this difficult and unstable period that the first signs of hypertension appear.

Important to remember! It is important for every woman to know how the beginnings of menopause in women, the symptoms of this condition, reviews about others' well-being during this difficult period, to meet him bravely and without panic. Know what to do to improve well-being.

All of the above symptoms can occur individually or in combination. The manifestation of all the signs at once is impossible, but every woman should pay special attention to her health and physical condition.

Any deviation from the norm may signal the development or complication of comorbidities or diseases, the symptoms of which may separately be similar to menopausal symptoms.

When to visit a doctor

It is important to remember in which cases an urgent need to consult a doctor. Only a certified specialist will conduct the necessary examination and determine the cause of deviations or pathologies, and also prescribe the necessary treatment. It is necessary to monitor the frequency and duration of menstrual cycles.

The list of deviations from the norm that are mandatory for an immediate visit to the gynecologist:

  • profuse bleeding, if the need arises to change the gasket after 2 - 3 hours
  • appearance of blood smears after sexual contact
  • if during the menstruation blood clots appear on the pad
  • blood smears and discharge between periods
  • increase in menstrual bleeding for 3 days or more
  • no menstruation for 3 months or more
  • shorter (less than 21 days) or elongated (more than 3 months) menstrual cycles
  • severe pulling pain in the lower abdomen during menstruation

To self-medicate in any of these cases is strictly prohibited.

How can you slow the onset of menopause

Climax - a natural physiological process, the onset of which can not be canceled. However, with a reasonable approach, you can significantly push the approach of menopause and alleviate the condition.

As soon as the first symptoms of menopause occur, It is worth adhering to several recommendations to improve well-being:

  • strict weight control. Due to the lack of sex hormones, a metabolic disorder occurs, which leads to a rapid weight gain. It is statistically proved that obese women are harder to bear the load on the body associated with changes in the period of menopause,
  • proper nutrition. Oily, heavy and spicy foods should be abandoned or its consumption reduced to a minimum. Fresh fruits and vegetables, natural juices, and foods rich in vitamins and minerals: nuts, fish, olive and other vegetable oils should be included in the daily diet,

  • get rid of bad habits (smoking, alcohol, drugs),
  • lead a healthy, active lifestyle, visit the open air as often as possible,
  • experience as much positive and try to avoid negative emotions (depression, stress),
  • continuous 8-hour sleep extremely important not only for the physical, but also emotionally healthy state in the period of menopause,
  • carefully monitor your health and changes in the body.

According to reviews of many women, among the first symptoms of the onset of menopause, which manifest themselves most sensitively are hot flashes regardless of the time of day and state of health.

Proper actions and a reasonable approach to the process of menopause can significantly delay the onset of menopause and alleviate the symptoms of such complex processes in the female body.

How does menopause begin in women, symptoms. Reviews in this useful video:

Signs of menopause in women 50 years of age: