In gynecological practice, a disease such as a multi-chamber ovarian cyst often occurs among women of reproductive age. Also, such a pathology is often diagnosed in the weaker sex at the age of fifty, when the menopause period begins. The cyst is usually not attributed to tumors, but it is almost equal to it. The neoplasm consists of several chambers separated by partitions, inside of which there are cavities. Usually they are large.
Characteristics and description of the pathology
Multi-chamber ovarian cyst is a benign neoplasm of a nature that is formed from epithelial cells, inside of which there are many chambers separated by partitions with cavities inside.
First, a cavity appears in the ovary, which is formed from epithelial tissue. It may have a different size. The proliferation of ovarian tissue occurs as a result of accumulation of intercellular fluid in the epithelial cavity. If you do not remove the tumor in a timely manner, the fluid continues to accumulate.
The appearance of a cyst is due to the fact that in due time the follicle, in which the egg cell matures, does not burst, fluid accumulates in it, so it increases in size. As the cyst grows, the woman begins to feel pain. Education can appear both on the right and on the left ovary.
In medicine, this tumor is called a mucinous cyst. It can grow to huge size. Most often, the presence of pathology threatens the possibility of a woman to become pregnant in the future. In a short period of time, the neoplasm can transform into a cancerous tumor, so it requires surgical intervention.
Why does pathology develop?
The reasons why a multi-chamber ovarian cyst is forming are numerous. These include:
- Disruption of the hormonal system.
- During the menstrual cycle, there is a change in the concentration of hormones. High levels of progesterone provoke the development of a cyst in the second phase of the cycle.
- Inflammatory-infectious diseases of the genitourinary system.
- Congenital malformations of genital organs.
- Frequent abortions, early sex.
- Complications after surgery.
- Disorders of the endocrine system.
- Prolonged stress, unhealthy diet.
- Use of anticancer drugs, hormonal contraceptives.
- Running diseases of the genitals.
All these factors influence the formation of a multicameral cyst of the left ovary or the right one. This can happen at any stage in a woman’s life. But most often in reproductive and mature age. If the disease is congenital, then some negative factors affected the fetus:
- bad habits of a pregnant woman,
- taking medicine while carrying a child,
- mother's stress
- genetic predisposition.
Varieties of pathology
In principle, any ovarian cyst can be multi-chamber. Partitions sometimes form as the neoplasm grows. In gynecology, these types of cyst are distinguished:
- Follicular cyst is formed on the site of the follicle that is not burst. With long-term growth, the tumor becomes multi-chamber, has a large size.
- A cyst of the yellow body appears in place of the follicle that has burst.
- A paraovarial neoplasm is located near the ovary and does not form from its tissue.
- Endometrial neoplasm appears in the area of the endometrium. As the cyst grows, many chambers with dark contents form in it.
- A dermoid cyst contains such components in the chambers as nails, hair, adipose tissue, etc.
- Cystadenoma can transform into cancer.
A multi-chamber ovarian cyst of a large size (more than five centimeters), it requires surgical intervention, since drug therapy is ineffective, and a secret is constantly produced in its cavities. Often inside the septum may be cancer cells. Often a cyst provokes the development of serious complications.
Symptoms and signs of the disease
Symptoms of pathology are often similar to signs of other diseases of the reproductive system. Usually if a woman has a cyst, the following symptoms appear:
- Pain in the lower abdomen, it can be both periodic and permanent, to give the lower back, left or right side.
- Discomfort and pressure in the rectum, bladder.
- Frequent urging to the toilet.
- With a huge size of the tumor appears shortness of breath, pressure on the abdominal cavity.
- Increased abdomen.
- Increased pain during physical activity.
- Disorder of the menstrual cycle.
Symptoms that signal immediate hospitalization include:
- Increase in body temperature.
- Loss of consciousness.
- Hair augmentation on chin, nasolabial area.
- Rapid weight loss.
If you ignore the symptoms and do not treat a multi-chamber ovarian cyst, dangerous complications may develop, and in some cases even death due to rupture of the cyst.
Complications and consequences
With power loads, intercourse, fast driving, or shaking, a cyst can burst. Its contents flows to the ovaries, may enter the abdominal cavity. In this case, a sharp severe pain, which may indicate the development of internal bleeding. A woman loses consciousness, her blood pressure drops. This condition is very dangerous and requires immediate hospitalization.
Rarely, but may develop hemorrhagic shock. Also, when the body becomes cold, the immune system is disturbed, pus appears inside the cyst cavity, which can cause the development of purulent infection and sepsis. Sometimes an ovarian abscess develops. Often a multichamber cyst is reborn into a cancerous tumor.
Also, as the cyst grows, it begins to squeeze nearby organs, vessels, and nerves. This provokes stagnation of venous blood in the lower extremities, and varicose veins develop.
The larger the size of the tumor, the higher the risk of its rupture. That will lead to a life threatening condition.
Multichamber ovarian cyst in a pregnant woman
A pregnant woman forms a cyst for the same reasons as all other representatives of the weaker sex. Typically, the pathology is a corpus luteum cyst, which usually disappears on its own until the twelfth week of pregnancy. But there may be another kind of cyst. Usually it is small and does not show symptoms, it is detected by ultrasound in the early period.
But in this case it is difficult to exclude the benign nature of the neoplasm, one hundred percent, especially when the cyst is not lost in the sixteenth week of pregnancy. As the uterus grows, it will begin to put pressure on the cyst, as a result of which the latter may burst. The higher the gestational age, the more difficult the treatment will be.
The doctor examines the patient's complaints, conducts a gynecological examination, which ascertains the approximate characteristics of the cyst. Then the specialist prescribes the following examination methods:
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs makes it possible to determine the structure of the cyst, the number of its chambers, growths on the partitions, the contents of the cavities and other moments.
- Dopplerometry for the study of blood flow near the tumor.
- Test for tumor markers to determine the nature of the tumor.
- MRI and CT scan to view an accurate picture of the cyst.
- Puncture of the vaginal fornix to determine if there is any bleeding.
After examining the results of the diagnosis, the doctor makes the final diagnosis and prescribes therapy.
Treatment of multi-ovarian cyst
Treatment will depend on the test results, especially on tumor markers, the size of the cyst and the presence of complications. If the patient’s condition is more or less normal, conservative therapy is prescribed, the effectiveness of which should be visible for two months. In this case, a multi-chamber ovarian cyst is treated without surgery.
The doctor prescribes the following medications:
- Anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Antispasmodic drugs.
- Vitamin and mineral complexes.
If therapy was ineffective, puncture treatment is carried out. In this case, some substance is introduced into the cyst cavity, which provokes adhesion of its walls and elimination of the neoplasm. If the cyst has many chambers and partitions, this process will be difficult. The doctor should carefully consider the choice of this technique, since in the presence of inflammation in the cyst it can not be done.
The operation for a multi-chamber ovarian cyst is prescribed in the following cases:
- The ineffectiveness of drug therapy.
- The presence of cysts more than ten centimeters in diameter.
- Acute emergency of the patient.
- The presence of internal bleeding.
- Torsion of neoplasm.
- Dying off of the ovary.
The method of operation is chosen by the surgeon in each case. The intervention with the use of a laparoscope or endoscope is most often used, since it does not leave visible scars, it is not very traumatic, it is characterized by a small loss of blood.
The operation is performed under general anesthesia. In the lower abdomen, the surgeon makes several small incisions, inserts a laparoscope with a camera into them, and it translates the image. Tissues are removed by an electrocoagulator, which also burns injured vessels. Such an operation reduces the risk of bleeding to zero. The incisions are then carefully stitched, the scars are almost invisible.
With a small amount of cysts, doctors preserve healthy ovarian tissue. In some cases, a cyst can affect the entire ovary, then doctors have to completely remove it. The removed organ is sent for histological examination to determine the nature of the neoplasm.
Treatment during pregnancy
Up to sixteen weeks of pregnancy, the doctor monitors the patient, conducts ultrasound tests for tumor markers. If the cyst does not disappear after sixteen weeks, surgical intervention is performed. The cyst can be removed up to twenty-two weeks of pregnancy, then the removal is not possible.
If a cyst was found in the planning of pregnancy, then it is removed, and only then the woman is allowed to plan for conception.
According to some reviews, treatment without operation of a multi-chamber ovarian cyst was performed with the use of the drug Duphaston. Women claim that after completing the course of therapy, the menstrual cycle returned to normal, the cyst came out with the discharge during menstruation. Most likely, the choice of such a drug was caused by a violation of the menstrual cycle, which led to the development of a cyst. Other women in the reviews of a multi-chamber ovarian cyst and treatment of the disease indicate the mandatory use of surgical intervention during therapy, since the risk of developing a cancer is very high.
Prognosis and prevention
The prognosis of a multi-chamber cyst of the right ovary or of the left one will be favorable with its timely detection and treatment. Often, a cyst is transformed into a cancer, so you need to consult a doctor in time. In the absence of therapy may develop serious complications that can lead to death.
In order to prevent the need to promptly treat inflammatory and infectious diseases, as well as STDs. Hormonal drugs should be used only as prescribed by a doctor. Their long reception is not recommended. It is important to lead a healthy lifestyle, exercise, eat right. Timely diagnosis and therapy of the cyst will help to preserve health and even life.
Causes of Multi-ovarian Cyst
The development of a cyst on the ovary may be due to a variety of factors. In medical practice, the most common causes of neoplasia are presented:
- congenital anomalous structure of the genital organs,
- inflammatory processes in the female genital area,
- functional hormonal disorders,
- sprains and other soft tissue injuries,
- the presence of excess weight
- irregular monthly cycles
- diagnosing cysts in the mammary glands,
- early onset of sexual activity
- impaired central regulation of the sex glands,
- endocrine disorders.
Under the influence of any of the above factors, the formation of a single-chamber or multi-chamber cyst on the ovaries may begin.
Only ultrasound and analysis of complaints will help establish that a woman has a multi-chamber ovarian cyst.
Photo pathology will contribute to the formation of a general understanding of the disease. It is extremely important to identify not only the pathology, but also the reasons that provoked its occurrence, because without removing the provoking factors, a full recovery of the patient cannot be achieved.
Symptoms of the disease
An unconventional technique with a stunning effect!
This disease is quite insidious, because over a long period of time it can occur without pronounced symptoms. In many cases, the detection of pathologists occurs spontaneously during the next examination at the gynecologist. In this case, the woman notes the absence of any discomfort.
As for the intense clinical manifestations, they can be observed in the case when the cyst is twisted or broken. With such complications, women may experience:
- characteristic disorders of the menstrual cycle, painful menstruation, an increase in their frequency, profusion or scarcity of discharge,
- malaise, weakness, irritability,
- the occurrence of pain during intercourse,
- urinary incontinence, which is associated with pressure on the bladder from the growing neoplasm,
- the appearance of frequent false urges to defecate against the background of exerting pressure on the rectal area,
- the occurrence of regular pain in the lower abdomen,
- an increase in temperature, which may indicate suppuration processes,
- an increase in the abdomen, if we are talking about large neoplasms,
- inability to conceive a child.
If a cyst rupture is suspected, women may experience minor symptoms, which also cause a lot of inconvenience and include pale skin, low blood pressure, heart palpitations, dizziness, lethargy and other signs of impaired consciousness.
It is extremely important to timely diagnose pathology, because getting rid of it in the early stages is much easier. Unfortunately, in most cases, only in the later stages of education is detected.
Treatment and its features in this case are determined by the attending physician, taking into account the severity of the condition and the presence of serious complications. The late diagnosis of the disease is associated with the irregularity of the treatment of women to gynecologists for examination.
The process of rebirth is also accompanied by certain symptoms, which cannot go unnoticed. We are talking about a sharp weight loss, the appearance of low-grade fever, weakness and frequent headaches. As for the pain in the lower abdomen, it begins to wear a stubborn character.
Types of multi-chamber cystic nodes
Among cystic nodes, formations are recorded that more often than others form a cavity with several chambers:
- Paraovarian cyst. Formed in utero during the development of reproductive organs in the fetus, and is a bladder with fluid. Education begins to grow actively in the period of the formation of the menstrual function, therefore it is often found in girls of 10–13 years old. Medicines and home remedies are not capable of causing a paraovarial cyst to shrink, education requires only surgical removal.
- Follicular ovarian cyst. It refers to functional formations, that is, it is not a pathology and develops as a result of a failure in the cyclic functioning of the ovary. Normally, in the middle of the female monthly cycle, the dominant (mature) follicle should burst and release a healthy egg into the fallopian tube. If the follicle does not break, but begins to grow, filling with fluid, a cystic node is formed. Several chambers in the cavity are rarely formed.
- Serous and mucinous. Serous and mucinous cystadenoma are referred to as abdominal benign tumor-like formations characterized by several chambers with a liquid or thick exudate. Both are capable of malignant degeneration. A serous cystoma without treatment can grow up to 20–30 cm. A subspecies serous is considered papillary cystadenoma. With the growth of cystadenoma is able to gain up to 10 kilograms and is a pathology bordering on the cancerous state.Treatment involves only surgical removal.
Signs of a multi-ovarian cyst
The presence of the indicated tumor in the woman’s body is indicated by the following symptoms:
- lower abdominal pains that bother you regularly or occasionally, radiating to the rectal area or leg,
- failures of the menstrual cycle
- increase in the size of the abdomen,
- increased body temperature
- bleeding that occurs outside the menstruation period,
- reduced fertility or lack of pregnancy one year after the start of regular sexual activity without using contraceptives,
- feeling weak
- a sharp weight loss on the background of a normal diet,
- hyperandrogenism - a condition caused by excessive production of androgens and their effect on the body, while the woman has excessive hair growth on the chin, above the upper lip and on other parts of the body,
- false urge to act of defecation.
All signs of the disease can be divided into three groups:
- pain syndrome,
- hormonal abnormalities
- manifestations of intoxication.
When a multi-chamber ovarian cyst ruptures, there is great pain and dizziness. A woman may even lose consciousness. In this case, medical care should be provided immediately.
Multiple cyst of the left ovary is often accompanied by a pronounced clinical picture. Regardless of where the tumor is located, it is necessary to treat it as soon as possible. Otherwise, the development of complications is not excluded.
Diagnosis and tactics of pathology treatment
Multi-chamber cyst on the cut
Leading ways to detect tumors are:
- blood test for tumor markers,
- blood test for hormones.
Diagnosis of a multi-chamber neoplasm at an early stage increases the effectiveness of therapy. Medical tactics are determined by a specialist, based on the stage of the pathology and the reason that triggered its development. So, if the cyst was formed on the background of hormonal abnormalities, then the woman is recommended to take hormonal drugs, as well as anti-inflammatory drugs. In this case, treatment is carried out without surgery.
Factors determining treatment tactics:
- ultrasound data
- the age of the patient
- the nature of the neoplasm
- level CA-125
- female fertility rate.
Methods for the treatment of ovarian epithelial tumors:
Therapy depending on the type
There are several varieties of multi-ovarian neoplasm. The patient's treatment regimen is determined by a specialist, based on the propensity for malignant transformation and some other factors.
The multi-chamber retention cyst identified in the process of ultrasound examination requires complex therapy (puncture and surgery). With almost 100% probability this prevents the occurrence of recurrence of pathology in the future.
Follicular cyst has a functional origin. It appears in place of the unexploded follicle and is of the type of single-chamber neoplasm, however, with long-term existence and impressive size, it can become multi-compartment. The patient is advised to be constantly supervised by a specialist for at least six months. When fulfilling his recommendations, a neoplasm usually passes on its own. If this does not happen, then hormonal drugs are prescribed to the woman for at least three months. Then an ultrasound is performed to analyze the effectiveness of the treatment.
A multi-chamber dermoid cyst is usually subjected to surgical removal, as over time it can transform into a malignant neoplasm. It is characterized by the presence of fatty deposits, hairs and other inclusions.
Therapy of multi-chamber endometrioid cyst is carried out both conservatively and surgically, but both methods are commonly used. Prior to surgery, the use of hormonal agents that reduce the size of the neoplasm is practiced.
Surgical intervention is the most effective way to get rid of a multi-chamber ovarian cyst. Based on the extent of the pathology, a laparoscopy or abdominal surgery is chosen by the doctor.
During laparoscopy, a woman makes small incisions near the navel. Through the Veress needle, the abdominal cavity is filled with carbon dioxide. This ensures normal visibility of the areas where the operation is performed. Then a device equipped with a camera and a flashlight is inserted into the incision. Thanks to the camera, the image is transferred to the monitor screen, which allows you to follow the process of surgical intervention. The affected tissues are removed using an electrocoagulator, which not only copes with the main task, but also simultaneously burns the vessels.
If the neoplasm is small and does not touch the adjacent tissues, the doctors are limited to its removal. At the same time, healthy ovarian tissue remains intact. Abdominal surgery is performed when the specified organ has been affected by a cyst. The excised tissues are transferred for histological examination.
The puncture is carried out by introducing into its cavity a special substance. Due to the manipulation of the cyst wall subsides, and it regresses. If the tumor is multi-chamber, then the puncture must be treated carefully, because problems may arise due to a large number of septa. When carrying out this procedure, it is difficult to exclude the presence of a malignant process, and it is impossible to take material for a biopsy. The study can only expose the contents of the tumor.
Complications of multi-ovarian cyst
The danger of pathology lies in the possibility of gradual malignancy of the neoplasm. In order to identify the oncological process at an early stage, a woman can be recommended a histological examination, which will result in a decision on the need for the operation and its scope. In addition, cyst rupture may occur.
It is dangerous for the health of patients that they have three-chambered ovarian tumors, since such tumors can sooner or later rupture. If this happens, then the woman's heart rate increases, weakness and discomfort occur in the rectal area, as well as painful tingling in the lower abdomen, pressure drops.
The appearance of pus inside a multi-chamber cyst is accompanied by a decline in strength and poor health. At the same time, body temperature rises, pain in the lower abdomen becomes pulsating, and in the general analysis of blood, there is leukocytosis. Another serious complication of pathology is hemorrhage or the development of tubo-ovarian abscess.
Treatment of multi-chamber cyst without surgery
For treatment of cysts without surgery, our readers successfully use the Irina Yakovleva Method. Having carefully studied this method, we decided to offer it to your attention.
Upon receipt of such a diagnosis, of course, every woman wants to get rid of the disease without surgery. Appointment of adequate treatment is possible only after identifying the exact etiology of the disease. When prescribing a treatment, a specialist is usually guided by the type, stage of development of the neoplasms and the presence of serious complications.
Conservative therapy is a tandem of hormonal and anti-inflammatory drugs. Can this neoplasm resolve? This question can be answered in the affirmative.
So, when detecting an abnormal liquid neoplasm of small size, treatment is not required. For six months, the patient is carefully monitored, because the neoplasm is able to withdraw itself.. After the specified period, treatment is prescribed if the neoplasm has not resolved.
Treatment is not required in those cases when it comes to a functional cyst. As a rule, such neoplasms do not pose any danger, do not cause discomfort and self-erase within a few months.
A multi-chamber ovarian cyst during pregnancy also requires surgery only in case of an increase in size. If a neoplasm of minor parameters is detected during pregnancy, the condition of the woman is simply observed.
What is a multilocular ovarian cyst
This type of cystic formation is an ovarian cavity with several septa, and the contents of the cyst sections differ (mucus, liquid, blood, etc.). Tumors arise from different elements of the ovary - the stroma of the genital strand, epithelium, and others. As a rule, multichamber tumors of the serous or pseudo-mucinous type are diagnosed. More rarely recorded cases of the formation of multicular cysts by merging several luteal, endometrioid, follicular or serous formations.
A three- or two-chamber ovarian cyst is capable of causing various symptoms that depend on the histological structure of the neoplasm and the accompanying complications. In addition, the signs of the disease are affected by the hormonal activity of the tumor itself. The key symptoms of the disease are:
- lower abdominal pain (when a cyst ruptures, pain syndrome can also be felt in the rectal area and legs),
- violation of the monthly cycle, the appearance of strange vaginal discharge,
- body temperature rise.
As a rule, multi-chamber cystic formation has pronounced signs that indicate the presence of certain complications. Women should timely and regularly conduct a diagnosis of the pelvic organs to prevent the development of severe pathological processes. Symptoms of the disease are divided into three groups:
- hormonal disorders,
- intoxication syndrome,
- pain syndrome.
Sometimes the development of a cyst does not occur from the ovary, and tissues localized nearby, such a formation is called paraovarial. In this case, the symptoms do not manifest for a long time. Patients mark the first clinical signs only after the onset of complications (as a rule, after a cystic neoplasm has broken through). The doctor diagnoses the disease through ultrasound.
What makes a cyst on the ovary
There are various reasons for the formation of cystic formation. The most common among them are:
- disruptions at the hormonal level
- pregnancy (often there is a functional ovarian cyst),
- inflammation in the urogenital system,
- embryonic development disorders
- transfer of operation (sometimes as a result, retention education develops).
These factors can cause the formation of multi-or single-chamber cyst. Sometimes the cause is a certain mechanical aspect, otherwise - hormonal stimulation of the ovaries. In order for the formation not to become malignant, it is important to identify the disease in time and begin treatment. Therapy will be most effective if it is determined that it stimulated the development of a multi-chamber ovarian cyst.
What is dangerous multi-ovarian cystic
This type of formation is considered more dangerous than single-chamber cysts, because they suggest a high risk of the onset of the malignant process. However, not all clinical cases of neoplasms are considered unfavorable, so surgery may not be required. The doctor conducts a histological study that allows you to choose the best method of therapy. The serious complications of the disease include:
- hemorrhage into the cystic cavity,
- suppuration / rupture of a cyst,
- tubo-ovarian abscess (inflammation with accumulation of pus in the area of the fallopian tube, appendage and surrounding tissues).
How to diagnose multilocular cystic ovarian changes
Multi-chamber ovarian cyst is diagnosed by several methods. In some cases, the doctor performs a computed tomography or magnetic nuclear resonance - these examinations help the specialist to collect important data for differential diagnosis when the ultrasound scan has not become informative. However, examination of a patient with a suspected cystic often includes such ordinary procedures:
- gynecological examination,
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs,
- blood test for hormones and tumor markers,
Surgical treatment of multi-chamber cyst
Multi-chamber ovarian cyst often needs surgical treatment, since conservative therapy is not an effective enough method. The extent of the intervention will depend on the state of the female genitals, her age. In addition, the size of the cystic formation for surgery is important. Young girls are trying to keep a certain part of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, more mature women, as a rule, carry out a radical excision of the tumor.
It is possible to get rid of the formations with more than two cameras through surgical intervention. If the patient does not show any associated complications, the operation is performed by laparoscopy. At the same time, 3-4 small holes are made in the peritoneal wall, through which an optical device and medical instruments are inserted inwards. After the tumor is dissected, the appendage is restored. With a cyst of a small size, puncture is performed and its contents are drawn out.
Abdominal surgery to remove a cyst with multiple cameras
Assign this method of surgical intervention, if it is not possible to carry out laparoscopy. Indications for abdominal surgery are:
- the presence of adhesions,
- violation of genital topography,
If a multi-chamber ovarian cyst is removed by abdominal surgery, the rehabilitation period lasts longer than after laparoscopy, while the woman may remain disabled for several months. Sometimes postoperative castration follows the removal of a cystoma (often this happens in young girls), after which prolonged replacement therapy is carried out and the diet is observed.
What to do if a multi-ovarian cyst was diagnosed?
Hormonal imbalance in the body of a woman causes various neoplasms. Some of them are functional and do not pose a threat to life. Others - require close observation, can have serious consequences. Among these - multi-chamber ovarian cyst.
The essence of pathology
Multi-chamber ovarian cyst (multilocular cyst) is a benign tumor-like formation divided by partitions.
Inside the cavity is a viscous fluid. This type of tumor occurs infrequently, but requires careful examination. cyst danger - high risk of rupture and rebirth into a malignant one.
It occurs in women at any age, is localized on both ovaries, but more often on the right because of its better blood supply, compared with the left. By the number of cavities distinguish between two-chamber and three-chamber neoplasm.
Multi-chamber can be any single-chamber cyst. Partitions appear immediately or as the tumor grows. In medical practice, isolated following types multilocular tumor:
- Follicular It is formed on the site of a bursting follicle, over time it can grow and become a multi-chamber type.
- Endometrioid. Appears from the endometrium on the ovary, has a tendency to grow and the formation of several chambers.
- Cystadenoma. Its sero-papillary type is prone to internal growth and has a high risk of rebirth.
- Dermoid. Formation with internal partitions, filled with fatty tissue with particles of skin, hair, etc.
- Paraovarial. It does not grow from the tissues of the ovary, is located next to it. Long does not manifest itself, but has a tendency to break.
Read more about the ovary paraovarial cyst here.
Unlike an ordinary cyst, multi-chamber has a number of features:
- The presence of dense partitions inside the formation.
- Big sizes.
- It is difficult to conservative treatment.
- The risk of malignant growths on partitions.
- Often gives serious complications.
Causes and symptoms of neoplasm
The appearance of this type of cyst can be triggered by several factors:
- Hormonal disorders.
- Inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs.
- Termination of pregnancy (abortion, miscarriage).
- Disorders in the endocrine system.
- Hormonal stimulation (with IVF).
All of the above can have a direct and indirect effect on the formation of a tumor.
Doctors secrete the inflammatory process as the most frequent provoking factor.
Symptoms of a multi-chamber cyst are usually pronounced brightly. Among main manifestations:
- Pain in the lower abdomen and in the side of the affected ovary.
- Feeling of pressure on the bladder or intestines.
- Pain during sexual intercourse and during physical exertion.
- Violation of the cycle: delay, an increase in the duration and pain of menstruation.
- Spotting in the middle of the cycle.
- General malaise: weakness, loss of strength, drowsiness.
- Increased temperature (during inflammation).
- Increase the abdominal circumference for large sizes.
- Sharp weight loss.
As the tumor grows, the symptoms become more pronounced.
The diagnosis begins with a survey of the patient, palpation of the abdomen.Usually such cysts can be felt through the abdominal wall. Also conduct a gynecological examination.
To clarify the diagnosis using instrumental study:
- Ultrasound. This is the most informative method. Often used in conjunction with dopplerometry - the study of blood flow. Ultrasound shows the size of the tumor, the number of chambers, the presence of growth, the structure of the cyst, its contents.
- MRI Allows you to make a layered picture, to determine the structure of the tumor.
Among laboratory research:
- Complete blood and urine to detect the inflammatory process.
- A blood test for tumor markers and hormones to rule out malignant degeneration.
How is pathology treated?
In the case of small cysts and no risk of rebirth, the treatment is carried out by conservative methods. They include:
- Hormone therapy. Prescribed progesterone drugs (Duphaston) and contraceptives that prevent the growth of cysts and the formation of new ones.
- Physiotherapy (mud, balneotherapy, electrophoresis).
- The appointment of antibiotics to eliminate the inflammatory process.
- Vitamin therapy.
Folk methods are ineffective and practically not assigned.
Surgical treatment carried out in cases where:
- tumor size is large,
- analyzes revealed the presence of tumor markers,
- there is a risk of rupture or suppuration,
- conservative treatment brought no results.
In medical practice used two types of operations: laparoscopy and abdominal (laparotomy). Preference is given first, as it has several advantages: small incisions, small blood loss, a short rehabilitation period.
Laparoscopy involves the removal of only tumors with preservation of the ovary. A woman has the opportunity to become pregnant after surgery. In the case of a large formation, atrophy of the ovary may begin; in this situation, removal of the organ is carried out along with the tumor.
During oncological processes, all genital organs and nearby lymph nodes are removed. The excised material is sent for histology. After surgery, a woman is prescribed a course of hormone therapy, antibiotics and vitamins.
Multichamber ovarian cyst sizes - At the beginnings of health
Surgery to remove a cyst on the ovary
In some cases, ovarian cysts can cause some complications. Usually they are as follows:
- the presence of other diseases of the sexual sphere, the treatment of which is ignored.
The smaller this formation, the easier it is to remove. If you were told by ultrasound that you have teratoma, you should not be afraid. In most cases, it is a benign ovarian cyst.
The dimensions for the operation are not important here: when diagnosing a dermoid cyst, they take the necessary tests, exclude a cancerous formation, and then prepare the patient for the operation.
After it, the contents of the tumor are taken for examination.
Unfortunately, doctors still can not come to a common opinion, for what reason it is formed.
According to one version, this is because during menstruation blood from the uterus enters the ovary along with endometrial cells. There they grow, forming this very cyst.
Another variant of its origin: with any surgical intervention, the woman's uterus and ovaries were injured, which contributed to the development of such a cyst.
violations of embryonic development that cause possible pathologies of the genital organs.
Disease treatment methods
- stresses and unbalanced nutrition,
Increasing in size, this cyst begins to put pressure on the bladder and intestines. As a result, women experience frequent urination and constipation. In addition, the menstrual cycle is disturbed, and sex life becomes impossible due to constant pressing pain.
Types of multi-chamber cysts and their features
First, you need to carefully monitor the schedule of prescribed medication. If this is not done, the relapse will not take long. But is it worth the torment that had to go through during the operation? Secondly, if an ovarian cyst is removed, it does not threaten your reproductive function at all. Having recovered, a woman can again become a mother.
The remaining types of cysts appear only once and after removal are never returned.
Undoubtedly, if the doctor says that you have a large-sized paraovarian cyst of the left ovary, the operation will be performed as soon as possible. Often she is not allowed to grow more than 7-8 centimeters. There are cases when such a growth is found on the right. There is absolutely no difference in its treatment or removal.
Unambiguous reasons for the development of multi-chamber cysts has not yet been established. In each case, the shape and structure of the formation is formed under the influence of external and internal factors.
As a rule, it poses no danger if diagnosed in time. However, there are cases of its transformation into a malignant tumor.
Causes, symptoms and treatment of multi-ovarian cyst
Depending on why a cyst appeared, several types of cyst are distinguished. However, there are general conditions for the occurrence of this disease:
Nowadays, quite often women are confronted with the diagnosis of endometriosis. Under this name lies quite a serious disease. It is accompanied by inflammation of the uterine mucosa. Against the background of this disease, a complication such as an endometrial cyst may develop.
After surgery, the pain will continue, which will pass in a few days. Taking medicines will make your condition easier. And do not forget about the sexual peace that the doctor will prescribe for you. If you follow these simple recommendations, the process will be much easier.
What is a special multi-chamber ovarian cyst?
Treatment: most often for pathological processes, an operation is performed with maximum preservation of ovarian function.
- acute pain in the lower abdomen,
When anxiety symptoms appear, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible - this will make it possible to identify the disease at early stages and minimize the risk of many complications.
Multi-chamber ovarian cyst is diagnosed by several methods. In some cases, the doctor performs a computed tomography or magnetic nuclear resonance - these examinations help the specialist to collect important data for differential diagnosis when the ultrasound scan has not become informative. However, examination of a patient with a suspected cystic often includes such ordinary procedures:
Yellow body cyst
Cyst or not?
Symptoms: there are practically no complaints, and the cyst is most often detected during a gynecological examination.
Yellow body cyst. it is also functional, it is formed on the site of a bursting follicle.
Multichamber cysts are considered the most dangerous, because they often become malignant. In the case of indications for urgent surgical intervention, a histological examination is necessary. This allows you to determine the amount of therapy.
In the case when there is a sudden rupture of a cyst or its torsion, the operation is carried out urgently. In this situation, it is likely to be abdominal. Rehabilitation after it is about ten days. With laparoscopy, this period is reduced threefold.
Quite often, the cyst of the right ovary is confused with acute appendicitis. If there was a twist of her legs, then without ultrasound, these diseases are almost indistinguishable.
In addition, other complications are also possible:
This type of formation is considered more dangerous than single-chamber cysts, because they suggest a high risk of the onset of the malignant process.
However, not all clinical cases of neoplasms are considered unfavorable, so surgery may not be required.
The doctor conducts a histological study that allows you to choose the best method of therapy. The serious complications of the disease include:
For treatment of cysts without surgery, our readers successfully use the Irina Yakovleva Method. Having carefully studied this method, we decided to offer it to your attention. Read more.
A complication that can occur when ignoring this formation is torsion of the cyst legs, as well as its rupture.
If the diagnosis is still difficult to confirm, computed tomography and magnetic nuclear resonance are assigned.
Abuse of addiction.
Symptoms of ovarian cysts
Most of the ovarian cysts for a long time do not have pronounced clinical manifestations and are often detected during preventive gynecological examinations. In some cases (increase in size, complicated course, hormonal secretion, etc.), ovarian cysts may manifest themselves with the following symptoms:
- lower abdominal pain
Pain may occur due to possible complications: torsion of the leg, rupture of the shell, bleeding or suppuration of an ovarian cyst. Constant aching pain caused by pressure on neighboring organs due to a significant increase in ovarian cysts in size.
- abdominal enlargement and asymmetry
An increase in abdominal circumference or its asymmetry can be associated with both large ovarian cysts and ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity).
- symptoms of compression of organs and vessels
A growing ovarian cyst can squeeze the bladder or lower intestine, which is manifested by dysuric disorders and constipation. The compression of the venous vascular bundles can cause varicose veins of the lower extremities.
- menstrual disorders
Hormonally active ovarian cysts cause menstrual irregularities - irregular, heavy or prolonged periods, acyclic uterine bleeding. With the secretion of male sex hormones by tumors, hyperandrogenization of the organism may occur, accompanied by a coarsening of the voice, hair growth on the body and face of a male type (hirsutism), an increase in the clitoris.
Ovarian cysts can develop under the influence of a number of reasons, the most common of which are:
- hormonal dysfunction (early menstruation, impaired follicle and ovulation maturation)
- inflammation in the ovaries
- hypothyroidism (reduced thyroid function) and other endocrine diseases
- surgical abortion: abortions and mini-abortions
Ovarian cyst complications
Some types of ovarian cysts may disappear on their own, some require a course of anti-inflammatory or hormonal treatment, and in some cases surgical intervention is required to prevent the development of terrible complications.
Ovarian cyst is a potential risk of malignancy, especially high risk of ovarian cancer from mucinous and endometrioid cysts.
Therefore, in order to prevent the development of oncoprocess, priority in the treatment of ovarian cysts is given to their surgical removal.
Ovarian cyst is most often a movable leg formation.
Torsion of a cyst stem is accompanied by a violation of its blood supply, necrosis, and peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum), which is clinically manifested by the picture of "acute abdomen": sharp abdominal pain, fever up to 39 ° C, vomiting, abdominal muscle tension.
Possible torsion of the cyst with the fallopian tube and ovary. In these cases, an emergency surgical operation is required, during which the question of the extent of the necessary surgical intervention is decided.
In some types of ovarian cysts (especially with endometrioid), there is a high probability of rupture of the capsule and discharge of the contents into the abdominal cavity. Another complication of ovarian cyst is infection and suppuration of the formation.
In these cases, emergency surgical procedures are also required. Ovarian cysts can cause female infertility or complicated pregnancy.
Endometrioid ovarian cysts often cause the development of adhesions in the pelvis.
The advantages of planned surgical treatment of ovarian cyst before an emergency situation is completely obvious.
In deciding on the scope and accessibility of surgical intervention, operative gynecology currently adheres to organ-sparing and less traumatic techniques.
Usually planned surgery to remove an ovarian cyst is performed by laparoscopic access and preserve the tissues of the organ as much as possible.
Diagnosis of ovarian cysts
Diagnosis of ovarian cysts is carried out on the basis of the following methods:
- collection of patient history and complaints
- bimanual (two-handed) gynecological examination, which allows to identify pathological formations in the ovaries, their mobility and pain
- transabdominal or transvaginal ultrasound, giving an ultrasound picture of the state of the pelvic organs. Today, ultrasound is the most reliable and safe method for the diagnosis of ovarian cyst and dynamic monitoring of its development
- puncture of the posterior vaginal fornix, which allows to detect the presence of effusion or blood in the abdominal cavity (more often with complicated ovarian cysts)
- diagnostic laparoscopy, which also allows the removal of an ovarian cyst, followed by histological examination and final determination of the type of tumor
- determining the tumor marker CA-125 in the blood, the high content of which in menopause always indicates the ozlokachestvlenie ovarian cysts. In the reproductive phase, its increase is also observed in inflammation of the appendages, endometriosis, simple ovarian cysts.
- computer or magnetic resonance imaging (CT or MRI), giving information about the location, size, structure, contents of an ovarian cyst and its relation to the organs presenting
- pregnancy test, excluding ectopic pregnancy.
Ovarian cyst treatment
The choice of tactics for treating ovarian cysts depends on the nature of the formation, the severity of the clinical symptoms, the age of the patient, the need to preserve reproductive function, the risk of developing a malignant process.
Expectant tactics and conservative treatment are possible with the functional nature and uncomplicated course of an ovarian cyst.
In these cases, it is usually prescribed to take monophasic or biphasic oral contraceptives for 2-3 menstrual cycles, a course of vitamins A, B1, B6, E, C, K, homeopathic treatment.
A number of cases show diet therapy, therapeutic exercises, acupuncture, mineral water therapy (balneotherapy). In the absence of a positive effect from conservative therapy or with an increase in the size of an ovarian cyst, surgical intervention is indicated - removal of the formation within the healthy tissues of the ovary and its histological examination.
In recent years, the laparoscopic method has been widely used in the surgical treatment of ovarian cysts. Laparoscopy is usually not used if it is reliably known about the malignancy of the process in the ovaries. In this case, an extended laparotomy (abdominal surgery) is performed with an emergency histological examination of the tumor.
When ovarian cysts are performed the following types of operations:
- Cystectomy - removal of a cyst and preservation of healthy ovarian tissue. At the same time, an ovarian cyst capsule is expelled from its bed with a thorough hemostasis. Ovarian tissue is preserved, and after recovery the organ continues to function normally.
- Wedge-shaped resection of the ovary - excision of an ovarian cyst along with the surrounding tissue.
- Removal of the entire ovary (oophorectomy), often together with tubectomy (i.e., complete removal of appendages - adnexectomy).
- Ovarian tissue biopsy. Conducted for taking the material of the ovarian tissue for histological examination in cases of suspected cancer.
Dermoid, mucinous, endometrioid ovarian cysts are subject only to surgical removal.
It is also necessary to remove an ovarian cyst before the planned pregnancy due to the high risk of twisting its legs or increasing the tumor in size.
Early diagnosis of ovarian cyst and elective surgery can significantly reduce the amount of surgery, recovery time and avoid the terrible consequences of the disease.
For ovarian cysts at a young age, when reproductive function needs to be maintained, a cystectomy or organ resection is performed with preservation of healthy, unchanged tissues.
In the climacteric period, in order to prevent oncological processes, the uterus with appendages is removed - an extended hysterectomy (panhysterectomy).
After surgical removal of an ovarian cyst, a course of rehabilitation treatment is prescribed.
In order to avoid the risk of complications, in order to preserve the reproductive function of ovarian cysts, it is necessary to diagnose and treat them in a timely manner. This is possible only with a competent, informed attitude to their health and regular (2 times a year) preventive examinations of the gynecologist.
What is a multi-chamber ovarian cyst
Education has dense walls formed by connective tissues that divide it into sections. With a multi-chamber tumor, its dimensions are larger than that of a single-chamber formation.
Often, the formation of intergrown chambers formed by various types of sections is revealed. In such situations, some cells are filled with a liquid substance, others - with blood clots.
A multi-chamber neoplasm is more dangerous than its single-chamber analogue, since the fluid accumulates in isolation in the cells, which can provoke their rupture due to overflow with exudate. More often a two-chamber cyst develops, located in the right appendage, because there is more active blood supply.
If a two-chamber cyst is found on the left, it has a slower development. The treatment of a pathology is similar for any site, and the symptoms of the problem do not differ.
Treatment of multi-chamber (three-chamber) ovarian cysts
Guided by the size and type of the ailment, the characteristics of the formation of the tumor, the age of the patient, they approach the issue of therapy. Among the features of treatment are such factors:
- When a functional neoplasm is detected in the ovaries, the dimensions of which do not exceed 5 cm, medical observation is recommended. Often the tumor disappears independently. The operation is shown only when the situation is exacerbated when the cyst is torn or is turned over.
- When it is confirmed that a multi-chamber cyst has the appearance of a paraovarial, serous or mucinous tumor - drug treatment is useless. Since the gap is inevitable, these forms of pathology require surgical intervention. Often, serous or mucinous cystadenoma can be reborn into oncology, so prolonging the operation and self-treatment are unacceptable,
- Surgery is performed simultaneously with the appointment of hormonal drugs and contraceptive methods to prevent the onset of relapse pathology.
Symptoms of education in the left and right ovaries
The symptoms of the disease do not differ from those that are present in normal, single-chamber, cysts on the ovaries. The main ones include the following:
- Periodic or constant pain in the lower abdomen. They can be localized more to the right or to the left, to give to the sacrum and lower back.
- Instead of pain, a woman may simply feel pressure on the bladder, rectum. This can form false urges to defecate, as well as frequent urination.
- For large tumor sizes, it can create additional pressure in the abdominal cavity, which will cause shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. Also, this may increase the size of the circumference of the abdomen in a woman.
- Discomfort during sexual intercourse, which was not there before. This is usually a sharp pain with sudden movements or a change in body position. In violent sexual contact, a cyst rupture may even occur, and this is an emergency condition requiring emergency medical care.
- Any exercise can cause increased pain.
- There is a violation of the menstrual cycle, most often it is a delay of varying duration, at least - periodic daub.
You should also be wary when the following occurs:
- Temperature increase without obvious signs of ARVI or other illnesses.
- Weakness, dizziness and even loss of consciousness may indicate rupture of a cyst and intra-abdominal bleeding.
- If a woman notes that in a short period of time, she has signs of hyperandrogenism - an increase in the amount of hair on her chin, nasolabial fold, along the white line of the abdomen, etc.
- Drastic weight loss while maintaining normal nutrition and physical activity.
- In determining the tumor in the abdomen below the navel.
Look at the ovarian cyst video:
Diagnosis of a multi-chamber cyst
One can suspect the presence of a multi-chamber cyst in a woman already on the basis of the complaints and the duration of the disease. A gynecological examination can clearly identify the tumor in the pelvis and give its approximate characteristics. Based on this, the gynecologist prescribes an additional examination, an approximate list of the following:
- Ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs. This is the most accessible and sufficiently informative method for the detection of ovarian tumors, especially if the technology used to study blood flow in the cyst area is doplerometry. With ultrasound, you can clearly trace the structure, determine the number of chambers, the presence of growths on partitions, contents and much more.
- To determine the nature of the tumor process (benign or malignant) should be tested for tumor markers. The minimum list is CA-125, CA-15-3, HE-4, ROMA index. At normal values, the likelihood of a malignant tumor is minimal.
- If necessary, CT or MRI may be prescribed, which give an accurate picture of the structure of the tumor.
- In acute surgical pathology, a puncture of the posterior vaginal fornix may be performed to clarify the presence of intra-abdominal bleeding.
- Laparoscopy can be performed as a treatment and diagnostic procedure.
Why is a large cyst dangerous?
Cysts are considered medium sized up to 5 cm. Anything higher is considered large in size and brings a lot of inconvenience to a woman, and can also provoke the aggravation of chronic pathology and the development of other diseases. There are cysts of 20 cm or more in diameter. Most often we have to deal with the following complications of such formations:
- There is a compression of the adjacent organs - the bladder, rectum, blood vessels, nerve endings. This leads to dysfunctions, stasis of venous blood, progression or development of varicose pelvic and lower extremities.
- Increased intra-abdominal pressure affects the diaphragm, which leads to shortness of breath, impaired cardiac activity. Against the background of chronic diseases (bronchial asthma, heart defects, etc.), all this will be clearly felt by a woman.
- The larger the cyst, the higher the risk of its injury and rupture with the onset of a life-threatening condition.
- Risk of malignancy and ovarian cancer.
Features of the emergence of multi-cysts in pregnant women
Multichamber cysts in pregnant women are formed by the same processes as in normal conditions. In most cases, these are tumors of the corpus luteum, which themselves pass up to 12 - 16 weeks.
But if the girl was not previously seen by the gynecologist, it is possible that the cyst on the ovary has an endometrial or dermoid structure.
The whole problem of such formations is as follows:
- It is difficult to exclude a 100% malignant growth, especially if the cyst does not pass until 16 weeks.
- During the growth of the uterus, additional pressure will be applied to it, which may cause rupture. The longer the period of pregnancy, the more difficult it will be to establish an accurate diagnosis and treatment.
Is it possible to do without surgery
If the woman’s condition is compensated (there is no rupture of a cyst, etc.), treatment begins with conservative measures. Their effectiveness is considered for two to three months. When a cyst is preserved after the expiration of this period, the neoplasm is removed. Conservative therapy includes the following:
- antibacterial drugs
- anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic drugs,
- enzyme drugs
- hormonal drugs
- vitamin complexes and some others.
In some cases, it is possible puncture of the cyst with the introduction of a special substance into its cavity. This leads to the collapse of the walls and the regression of education. But in the case of multicamera cyst, such treatment should be treated carefully. The fact is that there may be technical difficulties due to the large number of partitions. It is also difficult to exclude a malignant process, and in this case it is impossible to take a biopsy, only contents can be examined.
For the puncture it is necessary to strictly follow the indications. Cysts with suspected endometrioid or dermoid, with inflammation, etc. will not work.
Operation as one of the reliable methods of getting rid of a cyst
If the cyst does not disappear on its own after conservative treatment, it is recommended to remove it surgically.
These include the following:
- aesthetics of the cuts - just a few small punctures, which over time are hardly noticeable,
- minor trauma,
- slight blood loss
- quick recovery, already on the 5th day a woman can return to a normal lifestyle with some limitations.
What can be done during pregnancy
If a girl has a cyst before planning pregnancy, it should be removed and only then try to conceive a baby. If the formation is revealed during gestation, the management tactics are as follows:
- Up to 16 weeks, dynamic monitoring is performed on ultrasound and the well-being of the woman. Be sure to check all tumor markers to exclude malignant growth.
- If a cyst is preserved after 16 weeks, surgical treatment is suggested if its size is more than 3 cm.
- In the case when the tumor is up to 3 cm, the question of removal is solved individually.
- If a cyst is detected after 16 weeks for the first time, the tactic is individual. Up to 22 weeks, you can still remove it, after this period it is technically extremely difficult to do.
How to prevent the development of multi-ovarian cysts
It is not always possible to influence the process of formation of a cyst, especially to prevent its multi-chamber. From the general recommendations we can highlight the following:
- It should promptly identify and treat all inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, as well as all other gynecological diseases.
- Only according to indications to use hormonal preparations, and to carefully select oral contraceptives individually.
- Healthy lifestyle: proper nutrition, correction of body weight, sufficient exercise.
We recommend reading an article on the treatment of ovarian cysts without surgery. From it you will learn about the types of pathology and the causes of its occurrence, symptoms and possible consequences, as well as methods of treatment.
Multi-chamber ovarian cyst is a pathology that can conceal the signs of malignant growth. Timely diagnosis and treatment of the disease will help to preserve the health of the woman, her reproductive function.
This is a condition in which the integrity of the body is disrupted, accompanied by hemorrhage into the ovarian cavity. Most often marked apoplexy of the right ovary. This is due to the peculiarities of its blood supply. In most cases, the disease leads to intraperitoneal bleeding.
Physical overstrain provokes ovarian rupture. Sometimes it is accompanied by an inflammation of the appendix. Apoplexy can develop on any day of the cycle, but the probability of its occurrence increases during the period of ovulation and before the onset of menstruation. The following symptoms are characteristic of apoplexy:
- dryness of the oral mucosa,
- urging to defecate,
- recurring nausea
- pain in the abdomen.
Pus formation in the cavity of the cyst is accompanied by symptoms of intoxication. Characteristics include throbbing pain in the area of the affected ovary. Woman’s well-being is worsening: temperature rises and reduced performance. The results of the complete blood count are recorded. leukocytosis. With no treatment in the abdominal cavity abscess developswhich is dangerous for the life of a woman.
Under the influence of certain factors, multicameral cysts tend to degenerate into malignant tumor. Therefore, when they occur, you must be monitored regularly by a gynecologist. The signs of malignancy include drowsiness, irritability, pallor of the skin and the appearance of dark circles under the eyes. In this case, the treatment of the disease conducts an oncologist.
With a multi-chamber cyst, the signs are somewhat different from those that appear with single-chamber formations. Specific symptoms of the disease include:
- The discomfort during intimate contact. With sharp movements there is a sharp pain.
- Monthly Delays in the presence of spotting brown.
- Difficulty in breathing and shortness of breath.
- Causeless increase in the abdomen.
- Pains, localized in one of the ovaries and extending into the sacrum and lower back.
- Increased urination and urge to stoolprovoked by pressure on the rectum.
- Gain discomfort and pain after eating and with intense physical exertion.
The formation of multi-chamber cysts is influenced by both direct and indirect factors. Possible causes of illness include:
- early onset of sex life
- genital pathology,
- hormonal disorders,
- diseases involving inflammation in the pelvis,
- abnormalities in the endocrine system,
- postoperative complications
- chronic forms of infectious diseases.
Principles of treatment
The elimination of a multi-chamber cyst is performed using complex measures. Before surgery, prescribe medication based on hormones. They reduce the size of the cyst. According to special indications, puncture is performed. It represents the administration of a drug that causes regression of the cyst's lining. Methods for the removal of education include:
- abdominal surgery
After surgery, anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed. In order to reduce pain, apply antispasmodic drugs. To bring hormones back to normal oral contraceptive course. Vitamin therapy helps to strengthen the immune system and recover faster.
Up to 16 weeks of pregnancy, surgical treatment of cysts is contraindicated. Further actions depend on the size of education. If the volume of a benign tumor exceeds 3 cm, then it is removed. In the case when the cyst is small, the question of its elimination is considered on an individual basis. After 22 weeks of pregnancy, treatment is more complicated, so it is important to take action before this deadline.
With the development of malignancy, the decision is made to conduct ovariectomy. Procedure implies removal of the ovaries surgically. It is carried out only as a last resort, when it comes to saving the patient's life. After the operation, the production of androgens decreases. This affects the well-being and performance of women. The duration of the surgery is 2-4 hours. There are three types of ovariectomy:
- salpingoovariectomy (removal of the fallopian tubes)
- one-sided (one ovary),
- double sided (both appendages).
There are factors that can trigger the formation of a multilocular cyst. Preventive measures will reduce the likelihood of its occurrence. These include the following recommendations:
- Regular visits to the doctor will allow to diagnose pathological processes at an early stage and to avoid complications.
- Barrier Contraception reduce the risk of developing infectious diseases and unwanted pregnancy, which eliminates the need for an abortion.
- Wearing warm clothes in the cooler seasons, it will exclude the possibility of hypothermia of the genital organs and prevent inflammatory processes.
- Control over the regularity of the monthly will allow time to notice hormonal disorders.
- Healthy lifestyle provide a strong immune system, which reduces the risk of gynecological diseases.
Multilocular cysts do not belong to the formations that disappear without the intervention of specialists. In this case, treatment is indispensable.
With the right therapy, it is possible to preserve the reproductive function of a woman. Pregnancy is possible even in the case of unilateral ovariectomy. Conception planning is allowed six months after surgery.
Single-chamber and multi-chamber cysts: what is the difference between them?
Almost any cyst or a true ovarian tumor can be a multi-chamber formation. This is not a separate pathology, but only a species - one of the options for the development of formations of appendages. In most cases, at the initial stages of their development, all ovarian tumors are single-chamber. Further education can acquire partitions and become a two-chamber, three-chamber, etc.
This is how a multi-chamber (1) and single-chamber (2) ovarian cysts look like.
Important aspects you need to know about a multi-chamber cyst:
- Cellular structure of the tumor formation of the ovary acquire after a long existence. For this reason, multi-chamber cysts are predominantly large structures up to 5 cm in diameter or more,
- Tumors (multichamber including) are more common on the right ovary,
- They can be both benign and malignant, but when they are detected, the oncological alertness always appears in the doctor. It is noticed that malignancy occurs more frequently in cellular formations,
- Prone to complications: twisting the legs, breaking the capsule, suppuration,
- Almost never dissolve on their own,
- Poorly amenable to conservative therapy and in most cases lead the patient to the operating table.
All these features make such cystic formations of the ovary a rather dangerous pathology requiring mandatory medical supervision.
A multi-chamber ovarian cyst requires medical monitoring of its growth and the development of complications.
Causes of pathology and risk factors: who is in danger
The exact cause of the appearance of ovarian tumor formation is not known. The following theories are important:
- Hormonal disorders. There is a theory of increased ovulatory load on the ovary - the hypothesis of continuous ovulation. According to this version, the monthly maturation of follicles increases the likelihood of cyst development. The theory is confirmed by the fact that even 100–200 years ago, when women gave birth to many children, there were practically no tumors of appendages. Even without owning an ultrasound, doctors of those times knew: cysts occur in infertile women or deliberately refused to give birth. The theory is not proven, but most gynecologists tend to believe this hypothesis,
- Inflammatory processes. Chronic salpingo-oophoritis is one of the key risk factors for the development of cystic ovarian formations,
- Fetal disorders. This theory explains the origin of dermoid and other congenital cysts.
Depending on the etiological factor, there are different types of ovarian cysts.
- The early onset of menarche is the first menstruation in life. The earlier a girl matures, the more often she has ovulation, and the higher the likelihood of developing tumors and cysts,
- Late menopause. The mechanism of multi-chamber and single-chamber formations is similar to the previous paragraph. The longer a woman menstruates, the higher the risk of developing pathology,
- Repeated miscarriages and abortions
- Genetic predisposition.
The appearance of multi-chamber ovarian cysts is often associated with infertility.
Neuroendocrine disorders, metabolic syndrome, diseases of the thyroid gland are not associated with ovarian tumor formations and their role in the development of multi-chamber cysts has not been proven.
The mechanism of development of functional ovarian cysts.
The structure of the multi-chamber formation of the ovary
A two- or three-chamber cyst differs from a conventional cyst only by the presence of dense connective tissue septa. Tie dividing education into several cells. Inside each chamber there is a liquid content - serous, hemorrhagic, purulent. The structure of the cyst is determined by its origin.
The photo below shows a multi-chamber ovarian cyst (macropreparation), presumably cystadenoma. An accurate diagnosis can be made after histological examination of tissues:
The following photo illustrates a multi-chamber ovarian cyst in a section. The figure is made schematically, but most accurately reflects the nature of the pathology:
The clinical picture and its distinctive features
The leading feature of multi-chamber ovarian cysts is vivid symptoms. In most cases, these are tumor-like formations of large sizes, and they do not go unnoticed. Manifestations of the disease will depend on the type of cyst.
Let us consider in more detail the most common formation of the ovary with partitions inside.
The functional formation arising from an unpatched follicle rarely becomes large. Usually such a cyst resolves on its own within 3-4 months. If education does not disappear, it can become multi-chamber. Partitions appear in it, an estrogen-rich liquid remains inside. The following symptoms are observed during the formation of a similar tumor:
- Irregular menstrual cycle, delayed menstruation,
- Abundant and prolonged menstruation after a delay, often turning into bleeding,
- Lower abdominal pain on one side
- Less frequent bleeding in the middle of the menstrual cycle.
The increase in the size of the formation and the formation of partitions is associated with leakage of blood serum into its cavity and the incessant secretion of the secret.
This is a follicular ovarian cyst.
Yellow body cyst
A luteal cyst occurs at the site of the normal corpus luteum in the second phase of the cycle. Symptomatology is similar to the manifestations of a follicular neoplasm, however, bleeding and pain are noted mainly in the second phase of the cycle. Cysts of the yellow body are often two-chamber, filled with a clear liquid. If the formation does not resolve within 3 months and continues to grow, its removal is shown.
Schematic representation of the yellow body cyst
Pathology is the appearance of heterotopic foci on the ovaries. Often combined with endometriosis other localization. The distinctive symptoms include:
- Lower abdominal pain on the side of defeat. Quite often, these cystic formations are bilateral. The pain occurs a few days before menstruation and persists throughout the entire period of bleeding,
- Abundant, long and painful menstruation.
Endometrial cysts, both single-cell and cellular, are associated with infertility. Conception of the child is possible after the removal of education.
Type of ovarian endometrioma during laparoscopic surgery.
A true benign tumor originates from the ovarian epithelium. When small sizes usually remain single-chamber and asymptomatic. With the growth of education up to 4-6 cm, the appearance of pain in the lower abdomen, signs of compression of neighboring organs. Urination and defecation are disturbed, pain syndrome becomes permanent. At this stage, partitions are often formed in the tumor, and it becomes multi-compartment.
- Serous - a benign tumor with a dense shell. In most cases, one-sided. Almost never multi-chamber. Rarely malignant,
- Mucinous - a benign lesion filled with a viscous secretion (mucin). It differs from other tumors by rapid growth - it can reach up to 10-15 cm in diameter. Often there is a multi-chamber. May spread to neighboring organs. Ozloqualities in 5-15% of cases,
- Papillary - in form similar to serous cystadenoma, but has characteristic parietal growths. Differs in fast growth, the malignancy is possible.
Papillary cystadenoma in section.
If a cystadenoma is suspected, surgical treatment is indicated with mandatory histological examination of the material. Under the guise of benign education may be hiding cancer.
Often, ovarian cysts with septa are called atypical. There is no such diagnosis in the International Classification of Diseases, and the term is not entirely correct. The appearance of cells cannot be considered a key factor in determining the type of cyst and the prognosis of the disease. It is much more important to find out other parameters: the duration of the tumor, its size, the effect on neighboring organs, etc.
Possible consequences and complications: what is it worth being afraid of?
Multichamber cysts more often than other ovarian formations lead to the development of dangerous complications:
- Torsion of tumor legs. Cellular formations reach a large size, and against this background, twisting the legs can occur at any time. Complication often occurs after exercise, sports, intimacy,
- Rupture of the cyst capsule. The complication characteristic of large thin-walled formations
- Suppuration of the tumor. With a large number of chambers, the likelihood of infection and the development of purulent inflammation increases significantly,
- The compression of the pelvic organs. Multi-chamber cysts are usually large structures, and they put pressure on the bladder and rectum, interfering with their functioning,
- Infertility. Large cellular formations affect hormones and prevent the onset of ovulation. Tumors located close to the mouth of the fallopian tubes overlap its lumen and interfere with the meeting of the egg with the sperm. All these factors interfere with the conception of a child,
- Malignancy. It has been noticed that under the guise of a multi-chamber cyst a dangerous malignant tumor is often hidden. Histological examination helps to confirm the diagnosis.
Symptoms that may indicate the development of complications of an ovarian cyst.
Multi-chamber cyst is not terrible, since such formations do not always lead to the development of complications. With timely diagnosis and treatment of undesirable consequences can be prevented. It is important not to delay a visit to the doctor. Such entities are not prone to independent resolution and require the intervention of a specialist.
The appearance of a multi-chamber ovarian cyst during pregnancy deserves special attention. Such formations often cause its interruption and lead to fetal death. At revealing of a pathology it is necessary to get rid of it before conceiving a child. The operation is carried out during pregnancy, but any surgical intervention during this period threaten the development of complications.
Of interest is the identification of multi-ovarian cysts in the fetus. This is a congenital pathology, and its exact causes are unknown. For most girls, education dissolves within 2-3 months after birth. In other situations, surgery is performed. In progressive clinics, it is possible to remove a cyst in utero if there are special indications for this.
When an ovarian cyst is detected on an ultrasound, careful monitoring of the size and state of the formation before birth and after birth is required.
Diagnosis of diseases of the ovary
The following methods help identify the pathology:
- Gynecological examination. Large multi-cysts are defined as rounded formations in the projection of the ovary,
- Ultrasound. An ultrasound examination shows a cyst as a cavity with many partitions. The formation is filled with fluid. When it breaks free fluid is detected in the abdominal cavity. Simultaneously with ultrasound, color Doppler is performed. This method allows you to assess the blood flow of the tumor and identify signs of malignant degeneration,
- Tumor marker tests (CA 125, CA 72-4, CA 19) help differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant,
- Computed tomography makes it possible to obtain a three-dimensional image of the tumor, assess its size and structure and find out the degree of germination in neighboring organs,
- Laparoscopy is the final stage of diagnosis. According to the indications, the operation can be curative, and the cyst will be immediately removed,
- Histological examination - evaluation of tissue structure. The only way to reliably know the type of cyst and identify a malignant neoplasm.
The photo below shows an ultrasound scan with a multi-chamber ovarian cyst. The formation with a lot of partitions and a cellular structure is clearly visible:
Treatment methods: can we do without surgery?
Conservative therapy for multi-chamber ovarian cyst is practiced under certain conditions:
- Education grows slowly and does not cause compression of the pelvic organs,
- A tumor with no signs of malignant degeneration,
- Not accompanied by severe clinical symptoms.
- No complications: rupture of the capsule, torsion of the neoplasm of the tumor, suppuration.
The scheme of conservative therapy involves medication:
- Hormonal agents are prescribed for functional cysts. The course of treatment is 3 months. During this period, education should dissolve. Priority is given to low-dose oral contraceptives,
- Anti-inflammatory therapy is indicated when a tumor appears on the background of chronic salpingo-oophoritis. Apply funds from the group of NSAIDs. These drugs not only have a positive effect on the condition of the ovaries, but also relieve pain.
Multi-chamber ovarian cysts are poorly amenable to conservative therapy, and without surgery, usually not enough. Many gynecologists believe that there is no point in wasting time taking hormones or anti-inflammatory drugs - there will be no effect. The danger lies in the fact that during conservative therapy, a cyst may increase in size, and it will be more difficult to cope with it in the future. For this reason, many doctors immediately detect a woman for surgery when a multi-chamber cyst is detected.
Expectant tactics (without the use of any medication) is justified only with functional uncomplicated cysts. The observation period is not more than 3 months. If the formation has not disappeared, the operation is shown. With dermoid cysts and true tumors (cystadenoma, etc.), the treatment is only surgical.
Options for surgery:
- Excision of a cyst with subsequent suturing or coagulation of tissues. With multi-chamber education, it is technically difficult to do, so this tactic is not popular,
- Ovarian resection - excision of a small part of the organ along with a cyst. Conducted in the event that part of the ovary is not affected by the tumor,
- Adnexectomy - removal of the ovary with a cyst. It is indicated for large size education, as well as suspected malignant tumor.
Stages of excision of ovarian cysts.
The operation is performed mainly by laparoscopic access. This approach allows you to carry out all manipulations carefully through small punctures. Recovery after laparoscopy takes about 5-7 days, after which the woman is discharged home. Within a month after the operation it is forbidden to go in for sports, lift weights, go to the solarium, sauna, bath. Recommended sexual rest for 3-4 weeks.
According to reviews of patients who have undergone laparoscopic removal of a cyst or the entire ovary, the operation goes well. In the first days after the intervention, nagging abdominal pain is noted, but the discomfort subsides quickly. Laparoscopy rarely leads to the development of complications. With a safe second ovary, a woman can successfully conceive and bear a child. Planning a pregnancy is recommended 3-6 months after surgery and only in the absence of complications.
Prognosis after cure ovarian cysts
Ovarian cysts of a functional nature can be re-formed during life, as long as menstrual function is preserved. Properly selected hormonal therapy avoids relapse.
It is also possible to resume endometrioid ovarian cysts, but this depends on the correct operation and further treatment. Removed dermoid ovarian cysts are not re-formed. After removal or conservative treatment of ovarian cysts, pregnancy may occur.
If malignancy develops, oophorectomy is required. This procedure involves the complete removal of the ovaries. It is performed only in a situation where the patient’s life is threatened.
When the operation is completed, the production of androgens is significantly reduced, which affects the health and well-being of women. The duration of the intervention is up to 4 hours. Developed several types of operations:
- removal of the whole fallopian tube,
- excision of one ovary
- removal of both appendages.